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Yi Gong, Ronald B. Pegg, Adrian L. Kerrihard, Brad E. Lewis, and Richard J. Heerema

potentials of antioxidants in crops. To this point, solar radiation, specifically ultraviolet B (i.e., λ = 280 to 315 nm), has been shown to upregulate phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase, which are key factors in the initiation of phenolics

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Napaporn Sae-Lee, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Natta Laohakunjit, Benjawan Thumthanaruk, Dipayan Sarkar, and Kalidas Shetty

protein (PR protein) ( Belhadj et al., 2008 ), as well as the PAL (the key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway via stilbene and chalcone synthase) to produce phenolic compounds ( Bauer et al., 2011 ). The PR protein then could stimulate endogenous

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, and Mengmeng Gu

). The expression of key enzymes in the synthesis of phytochemicals, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and polyphenol oxidase are reported to be regulated by blue and red lights ( Li, 2010 ; Meng et al

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle, and David S. Gardner

2102 Wade, H.K. Bibikova, T.N. Valentine, W.J. Jenkins, G.I. 2001 Interactions within a network of phytochrome, cryptochrome and UV-B phototransduction pathways regulate chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis leaf tissue Plant J. 25 6 675

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Qingwu Meng, Jennifer Boldt, and Erik S. Runkle

chalcone synthase ( Bouly et al., 2007 ; Christie and Briggs, 2001 ; Jenkins et al., 1995 ). Cryptochrome 1 is also responsible for B radiation-induced anthocyanin accumulation in rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) ( Chatterjee et al., 2006 ). Cryptochrome 2 can