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Timothy A. Rinehart, Brian E. Scheffler, and Sandra M. Reed

; Soltis et al., 1995 ). Morphological investigations also support a close relationship between these two species ( Hufford, 2001 ). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicate H. macrophylla is more genetically similar to D. febrifuga than to other

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Yu Zong, Ping Sun, Xiaoyan Yue, Qingfeng Niu, and Yuanwen Teng

( Newton et al., 1999 ). Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in nuclear genome, which are randomly distributed across eukaryotic genomes, have been widely used to detect genetic differentiation within species because of their high polymorphism levels and

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Edward J. Boza, Juan Carlos Motamayor, Freddy M. Amores, Sergio Cedeño-Amador, Cecile L. Tondo, Donald S. Livingstone III, Raymond J. Schnell, and Osman A. Gutiérrez

markers such as simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism are used to study genetic identity and evolutionary relationships in germplasm collections. In cacao, these markers have been used for establishing genotype identities, genetic

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Phillip A. Wadl, John A. Skinner, John R. Dunlap, Sandra M. Reed, Timothy A. Rinehart, Vincent R. Pantalone, and Robert N. Trigiano

, random amplified polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and simple sequence repeats (SSRs)], analysis of the genetic constitution of plants can be determined at an early stage, enabling the plant breeder to decrease the time and cost

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Tiantian Zhao, Wenxu Ma, Qinghua Ma, Zhen Yang, Lisong Liang, Guixi Wang, and Lujun Wang

genetic diversity and population structure of hazelnut, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPD ( Galderisi et al., 1999 ; Miaja et al., 2001 )], simple sequence repeat [SSR ( Boccacci et al., 2006 , 2008 ; Gökirmak et al., 2009 ; Gürcan et al

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Jian-Feng Geng, Cheng-Song Zhu, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Yan Cheng, Yuan-Ming Zhang, and Xi-Lin Hou

from simple sequence repeat (SSR), which amplifies specifically the region between two microsatellite motifs ( Zietkiewicz et al., 1994 ). Compared with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), ISSR produces more reliable and reproducible result

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James W. Borrone, Cecile T. Olano, David N. Kuhn, J. Steven Brown, Raymond J. Schnell, and Helen A. Violi

Florida J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 1200 1207 Davenport, T.L. Ying, Z. Schnell, R.J. 2006 Use of simple sequence repeats (SSR) to determine incidence and effectiveness of self- and cross-pollinated avocado

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Pilar Soengas, Pablo Velasco, Guillermo Padilla, Amando Ordás, and Maria Elena Cartea

Brassica napus includes economically important crops such as oilseed rape, rutabaga, and leaf rape. Other vegetable forms of Brassica napus, namely nabicol and couve-nabiça, are grown in northwestern Spain and north of Portugal, respectively, and their leaves are used for human consumption and fodder. The relationship of nabicol with other Brassica napus leafy crops was studied before, but its origin remained unclear. The aims of this work were to study the genetic relationships among nabicol landraces and other B. napus crops based on microsatellites and to relate the genotypic differences with the use of the crop. The relationship among 35 Brassica napus populations representing different crops was studied based on 16 microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance was performed partitioning the total variance into three components. The source of variation resulting from groups was defined considering the main use of the crop and accounted for a smaller percentage of variation than other sources of variation, proving that this division is not real. Populations clustered into seven different clusters using a similarity coefficient of 0.82. No clear association was evident between clusters and the main use of populations, suggesting genetic differences among populations could reflect differences in their origin/breeding or domestication. Spanish nabicol could have originated from a sample of couve-nabiças, and couve-nabiças could be used to improve nabicol landraces, because they have a narrow genetic basis that limits their potential for breeding.

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Timothy Rinehart, Sandra Reed, and Brian Scheffler

Hydrangea popularity and use in the landscape has expanded rapidly in recent years with the addition of remontant varieties. Relatively little is known about the genetic background or combinability of these plants. We recently established microsatellite markers for hydrangea and evaluated their utility for estimating species diversity and identifying cultivars. We also verified an interspecific cross using these markers. Future research includes marker assisted breeding, particularly with respect to remontant flowering traits.

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Timothy A. Rinehart, Brian E. Scheffler, and Sandra M. Reed

Using 14 codominant microsatellite markers that amplify loci across 14 different Hydrangea L. species, we analyzed gene diversity and genetic similarity within Hydrangea. Samples also included Dichroa Lour., Platycrater Sieb. and Zucc., and Schizophragma Sieb. and Zucc. genera to establish their relatedness to Hydrangea species since previous work suggests they may be closely related. Our results support the close affiliation between Macrophyllae E.M. McClint. and Petalanthe (Maxim.) Rehder subsections and their separation from the other Hydrangea species. Most of the Hydrangea species analyzed cluster within their designated sections and subsections; however, genetic distance between species within each subsection varied considerably. Our data suggest that morphological analyses which labeled H. serrata (Thunb.) Ser. as a subspecies of H. macrophylla (Thunb. Ex J.A. Murr.) Ser. are probably more accurate than recent genome size data suggesting H. macrophylla ssp. macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. and H. macrophylla ssp. serrata (Thunb.) Makino are separate species. Gene diversity estimates indicate that 64.7% of the total diversity is due to differences between species and 49.7% of the overall variation is due to differences between subsections. Low diversity suggests a lack of gene flow between species and subsections and underscores the difficulty in making wide hybrids. Since only 35.3% of the genetic variation is common to all species, unique alleles were used to develop a molecular key for unambiguous species identification and interspecific hybrid verification. Genetic similarity estimates for all 85 samples suggests a roadmap for introgressing horticulturally important traits from different Hydrangea species.