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John M. Dole, Zenaida Viloria, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William Fonteno

regarding the use of tap or deionized (DI) water ( Nowak and Rudnicki, 1990 ; Sacalis, 1993 ). In some studies, tap water produced the shortest vase life ( Kamataka, 2003 ), but in others, it resulted in a longer vase life than DI water ( van Meeteren et al

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Fisun G. Çelikel and Michael S. Reid

The respiration of flowers of stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.] had a Q10 of 6.9 between 0 and 10 °C. Simulated transport for 5 days resulted in marked reduction in the vase life of flowers transported at 10 °C and above. Flower opening, water uptake, and vase life of the flowers increased somewhat in a vase solution containing 50 ppm NaOCl, and considerably in a commercial preservative containing glucose and a bactericide. Exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in rapid desiccation and abscission of the petals, effects that were prevented by pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Even in the absence of exogenous ethylene, the life of the flowers was significantly increased by inhibiting ethylene action using pretreatment with silver thiosulfate (STS) or 1-MCP. STS was more effective than 1-MCP in maintaining flower quality.

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Niels B. Bredmose

The cut rose, grown as a single-stemmed crop, resembles a potted plant and can be adapted to transportable bench systems. Potentially, this cultivation method could increase control of rose development, flexibility of production and produce, and automation of difficult or laborious cultural operations. Synchronous growth and flowering is considered important. The effects of increased quantum irradiation integral and plant density on shoot growth, fresh biomass production, and bloom quality were studied as single-stemmed rose plants (Rosa hybrida L.) `Kordapa' Lambada, `Tanettahn' Manhattan Blue, `Tanorelav' Red Velvet, and `Sweet Promise' Sonia grown under 20 hours photoperiods at 23 °C average air temperature. Plants were grown in rockwool cubes on ebb and flood benches irrigated with a complete nutrient solution, and were supplied with carbon dioxide at 1000 μmol·mol-1. Increased the daily quantum integral from 17.8 to 21.0 mol·m-2·d-1 increased fresh biomass efficiency, stem diameter, and specific fresh mass while number of nodes, number of five-leaflet-leaves, plastochron value, and stem length at anthesis decreased. Fresh mass at anthesis was not affected by the treatments. Increasing plant population density from 100 to 178 plants/m2 increased stem length at visible flower bud, and reduced both fresh biomass efficiency and specific fresh mass. These effects are suggested to be related to assimilate supply and translocation, and light perception of the roses. High quantum integral slightly reduced flower diameter but in general, quantum integral or plant density did not affect bloom quality or vase life. Use of preservative floral solution generally improved rose flower diameter and vase life. In Lambada increased light quantum integral prolonged vase life, but use of preservative solution did not. The cultivars Sonia and Red Velvet required 19 to 20 days from cutting/planting until onset of bud growth, 29 to 34 days until visible flower bud, and 39 to 49 days until anthesis. Red Velvet roses were ≈60 cm long at anthesis, and had larger stem diameter and growth rate, accumulated more fresh biomass, were most efficient producing fresh biomass, and had higher specific fresh mass among the cultivars. Light quantum integral is suggested to be used as a means to synchronize single-stemmed rose plant development.

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Reza Saeedi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Amir H. Khoshgoftarmanesh, and Mohammad R. Sabzalian

-Elmer atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer 3030 Inc., Waltham, MA) was finally used to measure the calcium content of the flowering stems and their leaves ( Volpin and Elad, 1991 ). Vase life and relative fresh weight. To perform postharvest

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A.M. Armitage, N.G. Seager, I.J. Warrington, D.H. Greer, and J. Reyngoud

Incremental increases in temperature from 14 to 22 to 30C resulted in linear increases in stem length and node number and decreases in stem diameter and stem strength of Oxypetalum caeruleum (D. Don.) Decne. Higher temperatures also resulted in additional flower abortion, reduced time to flowering, and fewer flowering stems per inflorescence. Reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from 695 to 315 μmol·s-1·m-2 had similar effects as increasing the temperature on vegetative characteristics, but had little effect on reproductive ones. The rate of stem elongation was greatest at low PPF for all temperatures and at high temperature for all PPF treatments. Net photosynthesis rose between 14 and 22C and declined at 30C for all PPF treatments. Long photoperiods (12 or 14 hours) resulted in longer internodes, longer stems, and more flowers per cyme than short photoperiods (8 or 10 hours), but photoperiod had little effect on flowering time. Treatments to reduce latex coagulant and silver thiosulfate treatments had no significant effect on vase life.

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Iftikhar Ahmad, John M. Dole, and Frank A. Blazich

Many post-production factors affect vase life of cut flowers including developmental stage at harvest, temperature during the vase period, water loss, and various aspects of the vase solution such as sucrose levels, microbial populations, pH

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Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole

, but extreme temperatures within that range can stress plants resulting in pest/disease problems, unacceptably long production times, or reduced inflorescence quality ( Dole and Wilkins, 2005 ). A number of factors influence vase life after harvest

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Jing Ma, Zheng Li, Bin Wang, Shunzhao Sui, and Mingyang Li

., 2000 ; Sane et al., 2007 ; Vriezen et al., 2000 ). Wintersweet, which blossoms particularly in winter, is one of the important woody cut ornamental flowers with high economic value that thrives in central south and southwest China. The vase life of

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Nathan J. Jahnke, Jennifer Kalinowski, and John M. Dole

( Tulipa hybrids) and dutch iris ( Iris × hollandica ) are popular cut flower species commonly produced during cool spring seasons. These species have a relatively short storage and vase life ( Dole et al., 2017 ). Forcers can achieve a longer stem length

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Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, Ana Maria Borda, and Terril A. Nell

treatment of 27 rose cultivars with 0.5 μL·L −1 ethylene for 2 d accelerated, inhibited, or had no effect on rates of flower opening. The effects of ethylene on vase life were, however, not reported. Observations by commercial growers suggest that current