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Steven E. Newman, Michael J. Roll, and Ronald J. Harkrader

There are many naturally occurring substances that have the potential to be adapted to modern pest control chemistry. Azadirachtin, an insect growth regulator, is one such naturally occurring compound that has been widely accepted in insect pest management. Quartenary benzophenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) are known to be effective in the control of crop damaging fungal diseases. QBAs can be isolated from plants in the Papaveraceae. Extracts of Macleaya cordata, a species rich in QBAs, were formulated at 150 mg·L–1 QBA for spray application to greenhouse roses infected with Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae (powdery mildew). The QBA formulation was applied at 10-day intervals. Copper sulfate pentahydrate (Phyton27), piperalin (Pipron), and fenarimol (Rubigan) were also applied to mildew infected plants within the same greenhouse at their respective label rates for comparison. One day after treatment, the mildew infection was reduced 50% by QBA, whereas fenarimol, copper sulfate pentahydrate, and piperalin reduced the infection 50%, 75%, and 80%, respectively. Nine days after application, the mildew infection of QBA treated plants was less than 5% of the leaflet surface area. QBAs have the potential to be developed as a biorational fungicide for greenhouse use with both fungicidal and fungistatic activity.

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Richard P. Buchner, William H Olson, Vito S. Polito, and Katherine Pinney

Walnut Blight caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pathovar juglandis is a very destructive disease for California walnut production. Streptomycin is an effective disease control material; however, Streptomycin sprays can result in significant nut drop 3 to 5 weeks after spray application. We investigated the basis for walnut drop following applications of Streptomycin (Agrimycin) for walnut blight control. Flowers and developing nuts were collected from four treatments, plus an unsprayed control. 200 ppm Streptomycim was applied at 1) budbreak; 2) pre, full, and post-bloom; 3) postbloom; 4) budbreak and postbloom; 5) untreated control. Samples were collected regularly beginning at the first budbreak spray and extending through the period of nut drop. Samples were fixed and prepared for histological examination. In treatments with a high incidence of nut drop, the embryo failed to develop. Examination of the stigma and style in flowers from these treatments showed inhibited pollen tube growth. Results indicate that Streptomycin inhibits pollen tube growth, which precludes fertilization. This pattern of development and timing of nut drop following Streptomycin application at full bloom is similar in all ways to unpollinated walnut flowers. Nut growth and development appear normal for 3 to 5 weeks; then nuts abort. If Streptomycin became available for walnut blight control, sprays timed to coincide with pistillate bloom and pistillate flower receptivity should be avoided.

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John Speese III and S.B. Sterrett

The effect of crop rotation was investigated on the efficacy and the economics of various insecticide strategies for Colorado potato beetle (CPB) control in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in 1995-96. These included broad-spectrum insecticides and biorational (environmentally friendly, naturally occurring) combinations that targeted specific CPB life stages. CPB pressure was greater in the nonrotated than the rotated plots. Although all materials gave better CPB control than the check, significantly more spray applications were required to reduce CPB numbers below treatment thresholds in the nonrotated plots than the rotated plots in both years. Overall yields and economic returns were significantly greater in the rotated plots in 1995. Efficacy of insecticide strategies varied, with little defoliation and few CPB larvae found in the imidacloprid treatment in 1995 and 1996. All insecticide strategies except endosulfan resulted in significantly higher estimated returns to management than the untreated check; the greatest returns occurred with permethrin and cryolite. No yields or returns could be obtained in 1996 due to excessive rainfall before harvest. These results indicate that yield and the cost of the insecticide strategy should be considered as well as insecticide efficacy in developing an effective integrated pest management program.

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J.G. Williamson and R.L. Darnell

Six-year-old, field-grown `Beckyblue' and `Bonita' rabbiteye blueberries were sprayed to drip with Pro-Gibb (250 ppm GA3, 0.1% surfactant, pH 3.1). Two spray applications were made. The first spray was applied at 80-90% full bloom followed by a second spray 10 days later. Fruit were harvested at five dates, from 21 May until 1 July, 1992. GA3 increased fruit set and doubled total fruit yield for both cultivars compared to the control. Fruit yield was greater for the GA3 treatment than for the control at harvest dates 3 through 5 for 'Beckyblue', and dates 4 and 5 for 'Bonita'. Average berry weight for both cultivars and for both treatments declined as the season progressed. For `Beckyblue', average berry weight did not differ between treatments at most harvest dates. For 'Bonita', average berryweight was less for the GA3 treatment than for the control at harvest dates 3 through 5. GA3 increased yield of rabbiteye blueberry with little detrimental effect on fruit size. However, results from Georgia suggest that greater positive effects on fruit set should be possible.

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Esmaeil Fallahi and Brenda R. Simons

The influence of three rootstocks, various levels of soil-applied nitrogen in fall, and spring spray applications with and without minimum ground nitrogen on tree growth, productivity, leaf and fruit nutrient partitioning, and postharvest quality of fruit at harvest and after storage in `B.C. 2 Fuji' apple was studied over several seasons. Early results showed that trees on M.26 and M.9 were more precocious and had higher yield and yield efficiency. Trees on M.9 had significantly higher leaf Ca and incidence of sunburned fruit than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.7 had larger fruit and higher leaf N, K, and Cu, but had lower fruit starch degradation pattern (SDP) and leaf Ca. Soluble solids at harvest were lower in fruit from trees on M.26 rootstock. Trees with fall nitrogen application had lower leaf N and better fruit color. Lower quantities of N application had smaller fruit but better fruit color and higher firmness at harvest. Fruit from all rootstocks did not produce ethylene for several days in the ripening chambers. After this period, fruit on M.9 rootstock produced ethylene before those from other rootstocks. Trees established with only nitrogen spray without any ground application had leaf N deficiency after they started bearing fruit. Establishment of a new `Fuji' orchard based on only nitrogen spray produced weak trees with low yield and yield efficiency, while addition of a small quantity of ground-applied N improved tree growth and fruit quality.

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Raymond A. Cloyd, Cindy L. Galle, and Stephen R. Keith

In this study, we report on the compatibility of two commercially available predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, with three miticides used in greenhouse production systems to control the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. We determined the lethal effects of the miticides chlorfenapyr, spiromesifen, and bifenazate to both predatory mite species 24 hours after exposure to spray applications in petri dishes. Two rates of chlorfenapyr (0.40 and 0.81 mL/2-L) and spiromesifen (0.15 and 0.31 mL·L–1), and one rate of bifenazate (0.62 mL·L–1) were used. All rates were based on the manufacturer label recommendations for twospotted spider mite. Both rates of chlorfenapyr and spiromesifen, and the single rate of bifenazate were not harmful to N. californicus with percent live mite values ≥85% for chlorfenapyr and ≥95% for spiromesifen, and 93% for bifenazate. However, these same miticides were substantially toxic to P. persimilis with percent live mite values of ≤63% for all the miticides tested. Based on the results of this study, the miticides chlorfenapyr, spiromesifen, and bifenazate are compatible with N. californicus whereas these miticides are toxic to P. persimilis indicating a difference in susceptibility based on predatory mite species.

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Douglas A. Hopper and Julie A. McIntyre

Research focused on alternative methods to control Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande), encompassing chemicals from varying classes, parasitic nematodes, microbial insecticides, and physical/mechanical deterrents. Chemical spray applications were applied weekly for 4 to 6 weeks. Experiment 1 made comparisons between fenoxycarb (Precision), bifenthrin (Talstar), and entomopathogenic nematodes (Biosafe). Experiment 2 compared abamectin (Avid), spinosyn A and D (Spinosad), azadirachtin (neem extract: Margosan-O), and diatomaceous earth (a physical control aimed at deterring pupation). Experiment 3 compared Spinosad, fipronil, and two microbial insecticides (Naturalis-O and Mycotrol). The number of thrips counted in flowers after treatments had been applied indicated that the strict chemical treatments (Avid, Spinosad, fipronil) provided quick knockdown and overall longer-term population control. Microbial insecticides, diatomaceous earth, and nematodes maintained populations at a lower level than the control, but were not as effective as strict chemical controls. Margosan-O, Precision, and Talstar controlled populations at medium levels. For periods when populations may cycle upward, more potent chemicals could be used (Spinosad, fipronil, and Avid) while still avoiding problems associated with more toxic chemicals.

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Mustafa Ozgen, Jiwan P. Palta, and Stephen B. Ryu

Ethephon [2-(chloroethyl) phoshonic acid] is used widely to maximize the yield of ripe tomato fruits. However, ethephon causes rapid and extensive defoliation, overripening, and promotes sunscald damage to the fruit. Recent studies from our laboratory have provided evidence that lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) can reduce leaf senescence. We investigated the potential use of LPE to reduce damaging effect of ethephon on tomato foliage and influence on the activity of phospholipase D (PLD). Disruption of membrane integrity has been suggested as a primary cause of senescence in plants. PLD is known to be a key enzyme, which initiates the selective degradation of membrane phospholipids in senescing tissues. Two-month-old tomato plants (`Mountain Spring') grown in greenhouse condition were sprayed with water, 200 ppm LPE, and 1000 ppm ethephon. In addition, LPE spray prior to ethephon or mixture with ethephon were also tested. Leaves were sampled after 0, 2, 5, 24, 72, and 168 h of spray application, for PLD activity measurements. Spray of LPE prior to ethephon spray or inclusion of LPE in the ethephon spray reduced foliar injury by ethephon. Activity of soluble PLD was increased dramatically in leaves sprayed with ethephon initially and than dropped by 7 days. We also found that LPE-treated leaves had lower PLD activity than the ethephon-treated leaves. Plants treated with LPE-ethephon mixture also showed significantly lower PLD activity. These results suggest that LPE treatments mitigate ethephon injury to tomato plants. Furthermore, it appears that this mitigation involves modulation of the activity of PLD.

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Joe DeFrank* and James J.K. Leary

An experiment to determine the response of four potted anthurium cultivars to sequential preemergence herbicide applications was conducted at a commercial nursery located in Mt. View on the Island of Hawaii. The four cultivars tested were: Lady Ann, Sundial, Tropic Fire, and Nicoya. Herbicides were applied at two rates, the anticipated labeled use rate (1X) and two times the anticipated labeled use rate (2X). The herbicides evaluated in this experiment were diuron, isoxaben, sulfentrazone and oryzalin. Herbicide applications were directed to the base of plants to avoid direct contact with leaves and flowers. Applications were made at 64-, 69-, 70-, and 98-day intervals for a total of 5 sprays. At 71 days after the last spray application, each plant was collected to determine the number of flowers and dry weight accumulation of leaves, shoots and roots. There was a significant interaction between the chemical treatments and the cultivar for leaf dry weight accumulation. Sulfentrazone 1X and 2X significantly reduced the dry weight in all four cultivars compared to the untreated controls. Leaf weights for the isoxaben (1X) treatments were not significantly reduced for all cultivars. However, `Lady Anne' was significantly reduced at the 2X rate of isoxaben. Leaf weights for diuron and oryzalin at both 1X and 2X treatments were not significantly different from the untreated control. Only sulfentrazone reduced shoot dry weight and flower number. Diuron was the only herbicide that did not reduced root dry weight.

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E.W. Stover, P.J. Stoffella, S.A. Garrison, D.I. Leskovar, D.C. Sanders, and C.S. Vavrina

A commercial mixture of 1-naphthaleneacetamide and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (Amcotone) was applied to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) at various timings from early bloom through early fruit development to evaluate effects on fruit size and both early and total marketable yield. Amcotone was applied at rates from 10 to 40 mg·L-1, at three sites for each of the species studied. Measured yield response variables in tomato did not differ between the control and Amcotone treatments, regardless of location. Amcotone treatments did not affect yields or fruit size for pepper at the New Jersey or Texas sites. However, at Ft. Pierce, Fla., early marketable yield of pepper was increased in plots receiving three Amcotone applications at 10 mg·L-1, but total marketable yield was significantly reduced in all plots receiving more than two Amcotone sprays, and mean fruit weight was reduced by all Amcotone treatments. Early and total marketable yield of pepper at Ft. Pierce were markedly reduced in plots receiving four applications of 40 mg·L-1, which was a high rate used to assess potential phytotoxicity. While minimal benefit from auxin application was observed in this study, earlier studies suggest that these results may have been influenced by favorable environmental conditions for fruit development or negative effects on unopened flowers during all Amcotone spray applications.