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W.G. Harris, M. Chrysostome, T.A. Obreza, and V.D. Nair

significant quantity of quartz sand. Recent research suggests that their organic fraction behaves anomalously with respect to pesticide sorption ( Kasozi, 2007 ), perhaps because of the prevalence of algal residue versus plant detritus. Organic soils thin

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Travis Wayne Shaddox and Joseph Bryan Unruh

wetting agents have on golf ball roll distance be determined. Some researchers report wetting agents influence the VWC of sand-based putting greens, whereas others report no influence. Soldat et al. (2010) reported that wetting agents resulted in lower

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Carl J. Della Torre III, William T. Haller, and Lyn A. Gettys

the effect of topramezone in irrigation water revealed that the EC 10 of topramezone was 3.5 ppb on ‘Palmetto’ st. augustinegrass grown in 100% sand ( Haller et al., 2017 ). However, these results differed from unpublished field observations; plants

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Kevin R. Kosola and Beth Ann A. Workmaster

beds based on a well-drained sand substrate. Ericoid mycorrhizal colonization in commercial cranberry beds in Oregon can reach levels greater than 90% root length ( Scagel, 2003 ). Root length colonized gradually increased with increasing bed age, with

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Gustavo F. Kreutz, Germán V. Sandoya, Gary K. England, and Wendy Mussoline

to extend the growing season and allow producers to supply lettuce to the market during shortages ( Cantliffe and Karchi, 1992 ). However, soils in northern regions contain much higher sand content and may require adapted lettuce cultivars. Current

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James S. Owen Jr, Stuart L. Warren, Ted E. Bilderback, and Joseph P. Albano

added as an 8% (by vol.) substrate amendment. An additional substrate was included in the experimental design to represent the industry standard (control), which contained 11% sand (by volume) (8 pine bark:1 sand). All substrates were amended with 0.6 kg

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Ze-yuan Mi, Ding-hao Lv, Guang-hui Jiang, Jun-feng Niu, Shi-qiang Wang, and Zhe-zhi Wang

. Analytically pure agar powder, NAA, sodium hydroxide, and 6-BA purine were purchased (Tianjin Tianli Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd.). Humus, river sand, crushed bark, vegetative soil, and perlite were purchased from the Xian Yanjin Road Flower Market. Plant

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Timothy M. Spann and Michelle D. Danyluk

hand and the debris weighed. The weight of fruit per sample was calculated by subtracting the debris weight from the total sample weight. During sorting, 10 fruit were randomly selected and placed in a plastic bag for determination of sand accumulation

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W.A. Erb, A.D. Draper, and H. J. Swartz

Abbreviations: A, apparent net photosynthesis; Berryland, Berryland sand soil high in organic matter; CYV, canopy volume; DMP, dry-matter production; E, transpiration; g L , leaf conductance of water; Galestown, Galestown sandy clay loam soil; IC

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D.H. Taylor, C.F. Williams, and S.D. Nelson

Where coarse-textured materials, such as gravel, underlie the root-zone layer of sports turf soil profiles, water retention in the root-zone layer is increased. The objective of this research was to determine the water retention characteristics in sand and sand: peat mixtures placed over coarse-textured layers and to determine how sand particle size and type of peat in the mixtures influenced water distribution after drainage. Soil profiles consisted of 30 cm of sand or sand: peat mixtures over 5 cm of predominantly coarse and very coarse sand, which in turn was over 10 cm of gravel. Excess water was added to the profile and allowed to drain for 24 or 48 h, following which water content and air-filled porosity (AFP) in the mixtures were evaluated. Regardless of the root-zone mixture, the coarse-textured sublayers resulted in a wet zone in the lower portion of the root-zone mixture. An unamended, predominantly medium and coarse sand, when used in the 30- cm root-zone layer, maintained ≈10% AFP in the lower 6 cm after drainage. Sand: peat mixtures using this sand generally maintained 3% to 8% AFP in the lower 12 cm of the root-zone layer. An unamended, predominantly fine and medium sand root-zone layer had ≈6% AFP in the lower 9 cm and sand: peat mixtures using this sand had <5% AFP in the lower 12 to 18 cm of the root-zone layer, with significant portions remaining at or near saturation after 24 or 48 h of drainage.