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Hening Hu and Darrell Sparks

1 Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616. 2 Professor. Appreciation is expressed to M.W. Rieger, T.J. Smalley, and R.O. Teskey for advice and use of instruments. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in

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K. Yonemori, A. Sugiura, K. Tanaka, and K. Kameda

This research was supported, in part, by grant-in-aid (no. 01480046) from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Japan. We gratefully acknowledge the critical reading and suggestions about the manuscript done by K. Ryugo, Dept. of Pomology

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G.W. Stutte and J. Gage

Scientific Article no. A-4792. Contribution no. 7813 of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, College Park. We thank the Fruit Laboratory, USDA, Beltsville, Md., for the use of plant material and Chic Nishijima, Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of

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Eduardo L. Kerbel, Adel A. Kader, and Roger J. Romani

1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Horticulture, 106D Horticulture Field Laboratory, 1707 S. Orchard St., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. 2 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. We are grateful to Betty Hess, Dept. of Pomology, UC Davis

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Qin Yang, Yan Fu, Yalan Liu, Tingting Zhang, Shu Peng, and Jie Deng

The xenia effect refers to the phenomenon whereby the pollen genotype directly affects seed and fruit development during the period from fertilization to seed germination, which leads to different characteristics in phenotypic traits. The xenia effect can create differences in the endosperm and embryo formed after double fertilization and can also alter various fruit parameters, such as the fruit-ripening period; the fruit shape, size, and color; the flavor quality, such as sugars and acids; as well as the nutrient quality, such as anthocyanins. The xenia effect manifests in various ways, playing an important role in increasing the yield of fruit trees, improving fruit appearance and internal quality, as well as in directional breeding. Compared with other pomology research areas, our understanding of the xenia effect is still in its infancy. Currently, xenia is classified into two types: xenia and metaxenia. In the former, the direct effects of the pollen genotype are exhibited in the syngamous parts of the ovules; that is, the embryo and endosperm only. In the latter, the effects of the pollen genotype are demonstrated in structures other than the embryo and endosperm; that is, in tissues derived wholly from the mother plant material, in seed parts such as the nucellus and testa, as well as in the carpels and accessory tissues. However, the current classification has various shortcomings. In the present study, we propose a novel classification based on whether the appearance of xenia results from the tissue formed by double fertilization. Three xenia types are proposed: double-fertilization xenia, non–double-fertilization xenia, and combined xenia. The new classification has great theoretical and practical significance for future studies on the xenia effect and its mechanisms and also provides a more effective, broader application of xenia in improving the yield and quality of fruit trees.

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G.A. Picchioni, S. Miyamoto, and J.B. Storey

1 Former graduate research assistant and Thomas B. Slick Fellow. Present address: Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616. 2 Professor of Soil and Water Science. 3 Professor of Horticultural Sciences. Contribution from the

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Jerry K. Uyemoto, Bruce C. Kirkpatrick, and James N. Cummins

Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology. 1 Research Plant Pathologist, USDA–ARS. 3 Professor of Pomology. We gratefully acknowledge financial support received from San Joaquin Cherry Growers and Industries Foundation, Stockton, Calif.; from

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C.H. Crisosto and M.A. Nagao

1 Present address Pomology Dept., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616. Journal Series no. 3475 of the Hawaii Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. We gratefully acknowledge the Hawaiian Sugar

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Chih-Cheng T. Chao

late D.J. Gumpf, Citrus Clonal Protection Program, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California-Riverside for providing the Clementine block and L. Ferguson, Department of Pomology, University of California-Davis for providing the `Afourer

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Kitren G. Weis and Barbara D. Webster

1 Postgraduate Researcher. Present address: Dept. of Pomology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616. 2 Professor, to whom reprint requests should be addressed. We acknowledge with gratitude the assistance of Leslie Gray in data collection