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Steven P. Arthurs, Robert H. Stamps, and Frank F. Giglia

plants have receptors for blue, green, and ultraviolet light (phototropins and cryptochrome) and R/FR receptors (phytochromes). Different photoreceptors can induce distinctive morphological and physiological responses that allow adaptation to different

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle, and David S. Gardner

., 2014 ). Photomanipulation could therefore be used to increase anthocyanin content in rough bluegrass. Phytochrome has been shown to regulate anthocyanin synthesis through the absorption of red or far-red (FR) light ( Kerckhoffs and Kendrick, 1997

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

≈60 µmol·m −2 ·s –1 under a 16-h photoperiod from 0600 to 2200 hr to achieve a target DLI of ≈3.4 mol·m −2 ·d −1 . The R:B ratio and the estimated phytochrome photoequilibrium (φ) was calculated according to Sager et al. (1988) by multiplying the

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Qingwu Meng and Erik S. Runkle

phytochrome photoequilibrium was estimated according to Sager et al. 1988 ( Fig. 1 ). Supplemental lighting provided by HPS lamps was used for all plants from 0800 to 1700 hr , delivering a photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) of 60 to 90 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at

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Giedrė Samuolienė, Akvilė Urbonavičiūtė, Pavelas Duchovskis, Zenonas Bliznikas, Pranciškus Vitta, and Artūras Žukauskas

phytochrome and metabolic products of photosynthesis. The physiologically active form of phytochrome (P fr ), which is activated by red light, stimulates gene expression of NR on the transcriptional level ( Rajasekhar et al., 1988 ). An indirect effect of

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Guo-qing Song, Hideo Honda, and Ken-ichi Yamaguchi

/b binding protein family were found to be expressed in leaf tissue ( Piechulla et al., 1991 ). Rice phytochrome was found biologically active in transgenic tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) ( Kay et al., 1989 ). The chlorophyll a/b binding protein of

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Jasmine Jenji Mah, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

Sequential light programs shape kale ( Brassica napus ) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content Hort. Res. 1 1 13 Casal, J.J. Smith, H. 1989 The “end-of-day” phytochrome control of internode elongation in mustard: Kinetics, interaction with

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Qinglu Ying, Yun Kong, and Youbin Zheng

eliciting shade-avoidance responses through phytochromes ( Park and Runkle, 2017 ). Under a background lighting with BR (20% B and 80% R; B 20 R 80 ) at a PPFD of 130 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 , adding FR with increased levels from ≈12 to 149 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 (i

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Samuel Contreras, Mark A. Bennett, James D. Metzger, and David Tay

following PM; 6 d after PM, seeds were ≈8.5% water content, which was maintained until harvest ( Fig. 4 ). The light requirement for lettuce seed germination is mediated by the action of phytochrome, a soluble protein found in two interconvertible forms

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Garry G. Gordon, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Stewart T. Reed, James E. Brown, and Edgar L. Vinson III

). Phytochrome is the photoreceptor responsible for light-regulated growth responses. The phytochrome molecule is a dissolvable chromoprotein with subunits that are made up of a linear tetrapryrrole chromophore covalently linked to a polypeptide of 120 to 127