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David A. Munter, James J. Luby, and Neil O. Anderson

species are theorized to develop via several pathways ( Ainsworth, 2000 ; Darwin, 1877 ; Pannell, 2002 ; Ross, 1982 ; Webb, 1979 ). The particular pathway taken by a species can be partially inferred by examining its flower sexual types

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Cheng Bai, Charles C. Reilly, and Bruce W. Wood

lower in xylem sap from Ni-D than from Ni-S trees ( Table 1 ). Substances of the ureide catabolic pathway were also affected in that Ni deficiency substantially reduced the concentration of xanthine but increased allantoic acid in spring sap of Ni

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Bing Li, Jingjing Zhang, Xiurui Gao, Xiuqing Pan, Rong Zhou, and Yanrong Wu

influencing anther wall lignin synthesis and the flavonoid metabolism pathway ( Sun et al., 2021 ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormones are two important signaling systems involved in plant responses to abiotic stress, and drive changes that

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Yan Hong and SiLan Dai

( Dong et al., 1998 ), the partial light-dependent type ( Zhou, 2004 ), and the light-independent type ( Xu and Li, 2006 ). Accordingly, two hypotheses pertaining to the light-dependent and light-independent anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways have been

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Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Haofeng Chen, Carlos L. Calderón-Vázquez, Mary Lu Arpaia, David N. Kuhn, Mary L. Durbin, Livia Tommasini, Elizabeth Deyett, Zhenyu Jia, Michael T. Clegg, and Philippe E. Rolshausen

density. The second set of SNP markers was developed in a gene discovery effort targeting candidate genes from several biosynthetic pathways involved in fruit nutrient composition. These candidate-gene SNPs (CG-SNPs) have not previously been published and

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Sameh Sassi-Aydi, Samir Aydi, and Chedly Abdelly

( Gonzalez-Dugo et al., 2010 ; Lodeiro et al., 2000 ). Both N assimilation routes have diverse influences on drought tolerance because of the differences in the use of energy and the reduce of power characteristics of those pathways ( Schubert, 1995

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Esmaeil Fallahi and Thomas Eichert

) ( Eichert and Fernandez, 2012 ; Fernandez and Eichert, 2009 ). The pathways by which foliar-applied solutes penetrate leaf surface have been a matter of debate for a long time. One of the first concepts discussed in literature were “ectodesmata” ( Eichert

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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, Tripti Vashisth, Mercy A. Olmstead, James W. Olmstead, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

, Cambridge, MA). Additionally, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Mapper tool ( Kanehisa et al., 2017 ) was used to determine the metabolic pathways that involve the enzymes encoded by DEGs. Analysis of gene expression using real

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Jiaqi Lin, Weiyan Xuan, Yanpei Li, Shixiang Xiao, and Dou Feng

; Yamaguchi, 2008 ; Zentella et al., 2007 ). In higher plants, the biosynthesis pathway of GA is regulated by multiple enzymes ( Dayan et al., 2012 ). These enzymes include copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent -kaurene synthase (KS), ent -kaurene oxidase

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Shutian Tao, Danyang Wang, Cong Jin, Wei Sun, Xing Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Fuyong Gao, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

widely believed that C4H catalyzes the conversion of trans -cinnamic acid to hydroxycinnamic acid, which is derived from phenylalanine by the action of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and located in the second step of the phenylpropanoid pathway ( Hahlbrock