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Yuting Meng, Boling Liu, Ping Zhang, Ping Cui, Yuguang Song, Nianwei Qiu, Guoliang Han, and Feng Zhou

., 2013 ; Xu et al., 2015 ). The excessive ROS can cause oxidative stress, including peroxidation of cellular components and enzyme inactivation, which disturbs the normal physiological metabolism of plants. The latest studies show that PBDEs can damage

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Ryohei Koyama, Hiromichi Itoh, Syuji Kimura, Ai Morioka, and Yuichi Uno

, some types of stress can be easily introduced to the roots. Stress to the roots causes declines in root absorption and leaf photosynthesis and results in both osmotic and oxidative stress to the whole plant ( Kitano et al., 2008 ). For example

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Xu-Wen Jiang, Cheng-Ran Zhang, Wei-Hua Wang, Guang-Hai Xu, and Hai-Yan Zhang

priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: Insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging Front. Plant Sci. 6 420 Hu, J. Zhu, Z.Y. Song, W.J. Wang, J.C. Hu, W.M. 2005 Effects of sand priming on germination and field performance in direct

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Lie-Bao Han, Gui-Long Song, and Xunzhong Zhang

stress, especially under high light conditions ( Inze and Montagu, 2002 ). The ROS accumulation under oxidative stress may cause chlorophyll damage (bleaching) and reduce LCC. Leaf antioxidants may scavenge ROS and reduce/prevent chlorophyll damage. This

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Juan Pablo Zoffoli, Valentina Sanguedolce, Paulina Naranjo, and Carolina Contreras

temperature lowered the incidence of scald much more effectively. This agrees with previous studies where low oxygen in storage atmospheres prevents the development of the disorder. It would seem that scald is associated with oxidative stress, with radical

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Yong In Kuk and Ji San Shin

., 1995 ), which overloads the plant's defense system. This is one of the factors causing CI. The inherently higher photosynthetic activity in leaf 4 may have mitigated the degree of oxidative stress incited by low temperature, because there would be less

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Rachel S. Leisso, Ines Hanrahan, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

., 2011 ; Meheriuk and Lau, 1984 ) and external CO 2 injury during CA storage in a number of susceptible apple cultivars, although any further relationship with oxidative stress remains to be established ( Fernández-Trujillo et al., 2001 ). DPA treatment

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Na Zhang, Lu Han, Lixin Xu, and Xunzhong Zhang

( Triticum aestivum ). Moreover, excessive ETH application induced oxidative stress ( Xu et al., 2012 ), which might have negative effects on plant abiotic stress tolerance. To minimize the oxidative damage induced by drought and other environmental stresses

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Li-Juan Zhang, Tian-Xiu Zhong, Li-Xin Xu, Lie-bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

enzymes, such as SOD (EC 1.15.1.1), CAT (EC 1.11.1.6), POD (EC 1.11.1.7), and ascorbate peroxidase [APX (EC 1.11.1.11)] protect plants against oxidative stress ( Blokhina et al., 2003 ). SOD constitutes the first line of defense against ROS by dismutating

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Huifei Shen, Bing Zhao, Jingjing Xu, Xizi Zheng, and Wenmei Huang

enhances the photosynthetic rate and maintains the stability of the cell membrane through regulating enzymatic activity ( Ghanta et al., 2014 ), which eventually alleviated oxidative stress ( Wasti et al., 2012 ), but the underlying mechanism remains