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Michel R. Wiman, Elizabeth M. Kirby, David M. Granatstein, and Thomas P. Sullivan

minimize habitat for rodent pests. In organic orchards, this is commonly achieved by cultivation, which can degrade soil health and organic matter, damage roots, and compromise future tree performance ( Granatstein et al., in press ; Merwin and Stiles

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Yuru Chang, Lorenzo Rossi, Lincoln Zotarelli, Bin Gao, and Ali Sarkhosh

Florida vineyard soils are characterized by poor soil fertility; the soil is highly susceptible to erosion ( Collins, 2017 ; Gillette and Walker, 1977 ; Marchi et al., 2016 ) and has low organic matter contents ( Brown et al., 2018 ), nutrient and water

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Bruno Casamali, Rebecca L. Darnell, Alisson P. Kovaleski, James W. Olmstead, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

al., 2009 ; Strik and Buller, 2014 ). Soils suitable for blueberry production must be acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.5), well aerated with good drainage, high in organic matter ( Williamson et al., 2012 ), and have readily available iron (Fe) and ammonium

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Daniel C. Brainard and D. Corey Noyes

Management practices that build soil organic matter (SOM) are valuable for improving soil water-holding capacity, nutrient retention, aeration, and infiltration rates ( Magdoff and van Es, 2000 ) . For carrots ( Daucus carota subsp. sativa), these

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Travis W. Shaddox, J. Bryan Unruh, Mark E. Johnson, Clark D. Brown, and Greg Stacey

acres, and considering N release using N mineralization models from soil organic matter were associated with 42%, 28%, 29%, and 32% reductions in applied P 2 O 5 , respectively. Reducing turfgrass acres was also associated with a 23% reduction in K 2 O

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Elizabeth A. Perkus, Julie M. Grossman, Anne Pfeiffer, Mary A. Rogers, and Carl J. Rosen

, 2012 ). When these practices are coupled with high temperatures and irrigation under protected conditions, high tunnel soils are left vulnerable to degradation through loss of organic matter and increased soil salinity ( Hajime et al., 2009 ). Soil

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Ajay Nair and Brandon Carpenter

organic matter and ash that remains after organic matter is thermally decomposed in a low-oxygen environment ( Lehmann and Joseph, 2009 ). Biochar addition has been shown to impart beneficial chemical and physical attributes to mineral soils ( Barrow, 2012

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Shawna Loper, Amy L. Shober, Christine Wiese, Geoffrey C. Denny, Craig D. Stanley, and Edward F. Gilman

contain low amounts of soil organic matter (OM) and nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) ( Jim, 1998 ). As a result, the urban soil environment is usually not conducive to healthy root growth and function, which could lead to problems with

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Thierry E. Besançon, Maggie H. Wasacz, and Joseph R. Heckman

Cover crops can provide many agronomic services when included in a crop rotation. In general, they may be used to build soil organic matter, feed the soil food web, control soil erosion, capture and prevent nitrate (NO 3 ) leaching, provide a

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Ashley A. Thompson and Gregory M. Peck

N plus the inorganic N (NH 4 -N and NO 3 -N) ( Campbell-Nelson, 2015 ). Table 1. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N), organic matter (OM), total C, organic N, nitrogen as ammonium (NH 4 -N), nitrogen as nitrate (NO 3 -N), phosphorus (P), and potassium