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Sylvie Jenni, Gaétan Bourgeois, Hélène Laurence, Geneviève Roy, and Nicolas Tremblay

We thank Lucette LaFlamme for her technical assistance, the Quebec Food Processors Association, the Fédération québécoise des producteurs de fruits et légumes de transformation, and the Centre de technologies en agroenvironnement for their

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Janet M. Batzli, William R. Graves, and Peter van Berkum

Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. is a leguminous tree with potential for increased use in urban landscapes. Information on the nutrition of M. amurensis is limited. To our knowledge, modulation and N2 fixation have not been reported. Our objective was to examine M. amurensis for nodulation and N2 fixation. Soil samples were collected near legume trees at arboreta throughout the United States, with additional samples from Canada and China. Seedlings were grown for six weeks in a low-N, sterile medium and inoculated with soil samples. Upon harvest, small white nodules were found on the lateral and upper portions of the root systems. Bacteria were isolated from the larger nodules, subculture, and used to inoculate seedlings. Inoculated plants nodulated and fixed N2 as determined by the acetylene reduction assay. We conclude M. amurensis forms N2-fixing symbioses with Rhizobium.

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Raymond Baptiste, Lurline Marsh, Dyremple Marsh, and Farideh Eivazi

There is an increasing number of tropical legumes presently grown under temperate conditions with varying amounts of success, This growth chamber study examines the germination, modulation and N2 fixation of two cowpea and one pigeonpea genotypes at two temperature regimes, 15/10° C and 20/10° C, day/night. Prior to planting, surface sterilized seeds were inoculated by soaking in yeast mannitol broth containing approximately 2 × 106 cells ml-1 Bradyrhizobium (USDA 3384). Uninoculated control seeds were soaked in sterile water before planting. Air temperature of 15/10°C, day/night delayed seed germination, nodule initiation, and seedling development. Inoculated cowpea seeds planted at the 20/10° C regime attained 50% germination within 9 days, while inoculated pigeonpea took 13 days under similar regime. Bradyrhizobium persistence was not significantly affected by low temperature. The results indicate that nodule development for both crops were inhibited chiefly by a lack of developing root hairs at low soil temperature,

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Mohanjeet S. Brar, Jameel M. Al-Khayri, Teddy E. Morelock, and Edwin J. Anderson

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain legume, which in developing countries provides much of the protein in human diets. A plant regeneration system for cowpea was developed. Cotyledons were initiated on MS medium containing 15 to 35 mg·L-1 benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 5 to 15 days. For shoot regeneration, the explants were transferred to a medium containing 1 mg·L-1 BAP. Regeneration percentage (1% to 11%) and the number of shoots (4 to 12 shoots per explant) were significantly influenced by genotype. The duration of culturing and BAP concentration in the initiation stage significantly affected the regeneration capacity. Explants initiated on 15 mg·L-1 BAP for 5 days resulted in the highest regeneration percentage. Conversely, the highest number of shoots was obtained from explants initiated on 35 mg·L-1 BAP. This is the first report of plant regeneration of U.S. cowpea cultivars.

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M. Marutani, R. Quitugua, C. Simpson, and R. Crisostomo

A demonstration vegetable garden was constructed for students in elementary, middle and high schools to expose them to agricultural science. On Charter Day, a University-wide celebration, students were invited to the garden on the University campus. The purpose of this project was twofold: (1) for participants to learn how to make a garden and (2) for visitors to see a variety of available crops and cultural techniques. Approximately 30 vegetable crops were grown. The garden also presented some cultural practices to improve plant development, which included weed control by solarization, mulching, a drip irrigation system, staking, shading and crop cover. Different types of compost bins were shown and various nitrogen-fixing legumes were displayed as useful hedge plants for the garden.

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Greg D. Hoyt

A no-till sweetcorn strip-till tomato rotation was established to determine whether a grass or legume winter cover crop would provide greater summer mulch and more soil inorganic nitrogen from residue decomposition. Sweetcorn yields improved as N rate increased in rye residue and bare soil, but only increased at the 50 kg N/ha rate in vetch residue. Strip-till tomato yields improved with all N rates for all covers. Total soil N and C were greater in both the vetch and rye residue treatments than the bare soil. Fertilizer N addition did not affect changes in total N or C percentages. Greater soil nitrate was measured beneath vetch residue at spring planting than in the rye residue or bare soil surface.

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S.C. Phatak, D.R. Sumner, R.B. Chalfant, J.D. Gay, L.D. Chandler, R.L Bugg, and K.E. Brunson

Cover crops relay-cropped with vegetables with conservation tillage were compared with fallow conventional production for 10 years. Conservation till-relay received no pesticide and only one-quarter the recommended fertilizers. Winter cover provided significantly better weed control than conventional. Weed problems in relay occurred only in the rows where vegetables were planted. Legume winter covers increased soilborne organisms but did not influence root disease severity or postemergence damping-off. Thrips, aphids, and whiteflies were most frequent. These pests remained below the economic threshold with winter cover crop-relay. However, infestation of these pests and Colorado potato beetles was severe in conventional plots. Winter cover crops provided habitat for more than 14 beneficial insects.

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Raymond Baptiste, Lurline Marsh, Dyremple Marsh, and David Trinklein

Low temperatures adversely affect legume- Rhizobium symbiosis in the temperate regions. Plant growth and N-fixation of two pigeonpea and two cowpea genotypes were examined at three temperature regimes (20/10 C, 30120 C and 38/25 C day/night). Sterilized seeds were inoculated with broth culture containing approximately 1 × 109 cells ml-1 of Bradyrhizobium USDA 3278, 3458 and 3472. Nitrogen fixation by pigeonpea was inhibited at 20/10 C. Cowpea IT82E-16 inoculated with USDA 3458 at 20/10 C produced the greatest amount of nodules. Inoculation had no effect on Nitrogenase activity in pigeonpea. Pinkeye Purple Hull inoculated with USDA 3472 at 20110 C had the highest Nitrogenase activity. These results indicate a wide degree of variability among genotypes and Bradyrhizobium in their response to temperature.

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Janet M. Batzli, William R. Graves, and Peter van Berkum

Maackia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. is a leguminous tree with potential for increased use in urban landscapes. Information on the nutrition of M. amurensis is limited. To our knowledge, modulation and N2 fixation have not been reported. Our objective was to examine M. amurensis for nodulation and N2 fixation. Soil samples were collected near legume trees at arboreta throughout the United States, with additional samples from Canada and China. Seedlings were grown for six weeks in a low-N, sterile medium and inoculated with soil samples. Upon harvest, small white nodules were found on the lateral and upper portions of the root systems. Bacteria were isolated from the larger nodules, subculture, and used to inoculate seedlings. Inoculated plants nodulated and fixed N2 as determined by the acetylene reduction assay. We conclude M. amurensis forms N2-fixing symbioses with Rhizobium.

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Frank Kappel, Bob Fisher-Fleming, and Eugene Hogue

The relationship between the objective assessment of analytical measures of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit quality and the corresponding sensory panel rating was studied. The optimum size, based on average fruit weight, for sweet cherries was 11 to 12 g. A nine-row or 29- to 30-mm-diameter sweet cherry would be the equivalent industry standard. When two separate panels were conducted with overlapping samples, panelists had similar results for optimum fruit size. The optimum color is represented by the #6 color chip of the prototype of the Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et Légumes (CTIFL) scale (#5 in new commercial CTIFL chart). A fruit firmness between 70 and 75 using a Shore Instrument durometer was considered optimum. Minimum soluble solids concentration (SSC) for sweet cherries was between 17% and 19% and optimum pH of the juice was 3.8. The optimum sweet–sour balance was between 1.5 and 2 (SSC/ml NaOH).