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Sandra S. Cronauer and A. D. Krikorian

Abstract

Rapidly multiplying cultures of dessert banana clones (‘Philippine Lacatan’ and ‘Grande Naine’) and plantain clones (‘Saba’ and ‘Pelipita’) were established from isolated shoot tips on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/liter 6-benzylamino purine (BA). The growth rates of these cultures, expressed as increase in fresh weight over a 4-week period, were assessed. Rooted plantlets were produced using the auxins naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at 1 mg/liter with low levels of activated charcoal (0.025% w/v).

Open access

J. N. Travers, C. J. Starbuck, and N. J. Natarella

Abstract

In vitro propagated shoots of the apple rootstock, Antonovka 313 (Malus pumila Mill.)9 were rooted successfully in vitro. Roots became visible in 6-8 days, and 100% rooting after 2 weeks was achieved consistently in shoots cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) salt medium supplemented with 0.25 μm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Sucrose was the most influential medium component for rhizogenesis. Inorganic nutrients, IBA and vitamins did not influence rooting. Omitting activated charcoal caused only a slight decrease. A 1.5% sucrose solution added to a peat-vermiculite growing medium in vitro resulted in higher rooting than in treatments without sucrose.

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Jean-Marc G. Guedon* and James McConnell

Elaeocarpus yoga Merr. (Tiliaceae) is an attractive tree indigenous to the Mariana Islands and Palau. Recently its population has declined due to deforestation, typhoon damage, and pest problems. Stem cuttings of E. yoga were taken from hardwood, semihardwood, or softwood and treated with acid or salt forms of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at several concentrations. The cuttings were treated with on of the following: acid form at 0.5 mL·L-1 IBA + 0.25 mL·L-1 NAA; 1 mL·L-1 IBA + 0.5 mL·L-1 NAA, 2 mL·L-1 IBA + 1 mL·L-1 NAA; salt form at 1, 3, and 8 g·kg-1 IBA/. Rooting after 8 weeks was compared among treatments. The salt form of the IBA treatment at 3 g·kg-1 produced the greatest rooting percentage, root number and length. The acid form containing both IBA and NAA produced the smallest average rooting percentage.

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Samir Debnath*

The morphological development of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plants propagated either by conventional softwood cuttings or by in vitro shoot proliferation from nodal explants or by shoot regeneration from excised leaves of micropropagated shoots, was studied in cultivars `Regal', `Splendor', and `Erntedank'. Significant differences were observed between the treatments. In vitro-derived plants produced more shoots branches and rhizomes in contrast to conventional cuttings which rarely produced rhizomes. Plants propagated from cuttings had a lower number but vigorous shoots and thicker rhizomes than in vitro-derived plants. Source propagule had significant effect on multiplication rate. Another experiment evaluated the effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) application to softwood cuttings on subsequent rooting, shoot development, and rhizome production. Treating cuttings with IBA did not significantly improve rhizome formation and elongation. In vitro culture on nutrient medium apparently induces the juvenile branching characteristics that favored rhizome production. The advantage of rhizome production of in vitro-derived plants over stem cuttings varied among genotypes.

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L. Eric Hinesley and Layne K. Snelling

Stem cuttings of Atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] were collected in early June 1995, divided into two parts (distal tip and proximal segment), and rooted for 12 weeks in shaded containers outdoors. Total rooting was near 80%. Mist intervals of 8 and 15 min yielded the best rooting percentages and the least dieback and injury. Two rooting media were tested, with similar results. Rooting was slightly higher in Spencer-Lemaire Rootrainers (Hillson size), compared to RoPak Multi-pots (#45). More than 90% of the tips rooted, even without IBA treatment. Auxin improved rooting of stem segments, but the difference between IBA at 1.5 and 3.0 g·L-1 was small. Yield of cuttings suitable for transplanting or potting was 80% for tips, 58% for segments. Dividing stem cuttings into two or more parts allows multiplication of rooted propagules from a collection. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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James R. Ault

Shoot tip and stem segment explants collected from greenhouse-maintained plants of Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra were cultured in vitro for shoot initiation on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 2.5 μm BA, and 7 g·L-1 agar at a pH of 5.7. Unbranched shoot explants were subcultured to MS medium with 0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 8 μm BA for shoot proliferation. A maximum of 10.3 shoots per explant was produced on the medium with 2.0 μm BA. Nonrooted shoots were subcultured to MS medium with 0.0, 0.5, 2, or 8 μm K-IBA for rooting. Maximum rooting was 90% on MS medium with 0.5 μm K-IBA. Rooted shoots were greenhouse-acclimatized for 10 days. Overall survival was 75%. Chemical names used: 6-benzyl adenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Wen-Quan Sun and Nina L. Bassuk

Softwood shoots of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) rootstocks M.9 and MM.106 were banded with Velcro for up to 20 days before cuttings were propagated. Percent rooting and the number of roots per cutting were significantly improved by banding for 10 to 20 days, with and without IBA application. As the duration of stem banding increased from 0 to 20 days, percent rooting and the number of roots of both M.9 and MM.106 cuttings increased linearly or curvilinearly. Stem banding also stimulated budbreak of cuttings. In M.9, banding resulted in a higher survival rate and increased new shoot growth of transplanted cuttings after 4 months. Percent budbreak and new shoot growth were highly correlated with the number of roots per cutting in both cultivars. The effects of stem banding on budbreak and subsequent growth of the cuttings were largely due to the enhanced rooting of cuttings. Chemical names used: 1H-indole3-butyric acid (IBA).

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I.E. Yates and Darrell Sparks

Scion wood of `Desirable' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] was grafted onto the lateral roots of 70-year-old `Van Deman' seedling rootstocks for evaluation as an alternative to planting nursery-grown trees for orchard cultivar conversion. Grafting treatments included application of IBA, method of grafting, position of graft, and grafting time. Survival was higher for grafts treated with IBA than those without IBA, for modified bark grafts positioned beneath the soil line than for either modified hark grafts positioned above the soil line or inlay grafts, and for grafts made 6 to 8 weeks after budbreak than later in the season. Techniques developed in this study demonstrate that cultivar conversion of > 75% is possible. Chemical name used: lH -indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Abba Upadhyaya, Tim D. Davis, Daksha Sankhla, and N. Sankhla

Both kinetin and BA promoted in vitro shoot formation from hypocotyl explants of Lupinus texensis Hook. placed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. With either cytokinin, shoot formation was best at ≈4.5 μm. Adventitious root formation was observed only on tissue culture-derived shoots placed in MS media containing 5.4 to 54 μM NAA. IAA and IBA, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 55 μm, failed to stimulate rooting. Even at the optimal concentration of NAA, only 14% of the shoots produced roots. Thus, although hypocotyl explants readily produced shoots, adventitious root formation on these shoots occurred with relatively low frequency. Chemical names used: 6-benzylaminopnrine (BA); indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Michelle Carratu and Roger J. Sauve

Several studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultivar, cutting length, and leaf number on rooting of poinsettia. Cuttings were rooted under mist in a soilless medium with 50 cuttings per treatment. Visual rootball ratings were performed after 3 wk. In the first experiment, rooting of ten poinsettia cultivars was compared. The rooting hormone was 0.1% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Rooting of `V-14 Red' and `V-14 Marble' was the highest. `V-17 Pink' and `V-17 Marble' had the highest number of callused cuttings. `V-17 White' produced the highest number of extensively rooted cuttings. `V-14 Pink' (3-lf) cuttings 12 cm long rooted better than 5 cm cuttings. Rooting of (7 cm) 3- and 4-leaf cuttings was higher than rooting of 2-leaf cuttings. `V-14 Pink' cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA or 1% IBA + 0.5% 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) rooted better than with 0.1% or 0.3% IBA.