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Xurong Tang and Peter M.A. Tigerstedt

Eight characters relating to flowering and maturity, berry yield, and winter hardiness were estimated on the basis of intersubspecific or interprovenance hybrids to determine heterosis, heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Two provenances of ssp. rhamnoides, one of Finnish (Fin) and one of Danish (Dan) origin, were dominant to ssp. sinensis and Russian derived provenances (ssp. turkestanica) for most characters related to flowering or maturity. This tendency for dominance or overdominance also extended to berry yield and winter hardiness, except for hybrids between Finnish origins and Siberian (ssp. mongolica) origins. The start of maturity (Ms) and half maturity (Mh) showed the highest heritabilities (h2 = 0.88 and 0.81, respectively). The hybrids were matroclinal, suggesting that Ms and Mh may be sex-linked or cytoplasmically inherited characters. Winter hardiness was the trait with the lowest heritability (h2 = 0.02), suggesting that the climate at the testing site was not severe enough to differentiate variation among half sibs or full sibs derived from Fin x Dan, which on average proved hardier than the native parental provenance Fin. Full maturity (Mf) showed a moderate heritability but was stable across 2 years (rB = 1). High genetic correlations among Mf, Ms, and Mh (rG = 0.94, 0.96, and 1.00, respectively) suggest that these characters were controlled by the same genes. Yield showed a negative genetic correlation with all characters pertaining to flowering and maturity, indicating that selection for early flowering or early maturity should result in a gain in yield.

Open access

W. L. Summers and S. Honma

Abstract

A comparison of inheritance patterns and heritability estimates from a NCII crossing model which included green and red cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. (Capitata group) indicated differences between green × green and red × green crosses. Green × green crosses exhibit dominance for early maturity, large head weight, small non-wrapper leaf weight and small stalk weight while red × green crosses exhibit the opposite dominance pattern.

Open access

Carlos D. Fear, F. I. Lauer, J. J. Luby, R. L. Stucker, and Cecil Stushnoff

Abstract

Genetic variance components, narrow sense heritability, and combining ability effects of parents were determined for several traits from analysis of a partial diallel cross involving 17 parents. Parents included several Vaccinium species and interspecific hybrids. For fall growth cessation, general combining ability (GCA) effects were variable from year to year, and heritability was low. Variance due to GCA was more important than specific combining ability (SCA) variance for winter injury in each of the years. The heritability estimate over years was low for winter injury, although individual year estimates were higher. Lowbush parents had high GCA effects for winter injury in years with snow cover but low estimates for years without snow cover. Off-season flowering was observed in some progenies in both years studied. Certain V. angustifolium Ait. parents had high GCA effects for the occurrence of off-season flowering. The heritability estimate for off-season flowering in combined years was 0.47. Variation due to years and to GCA × year interaction was significant for all characters studied.

Open access

W. L. Summers and S. Honma

Abstract

A comparison of inheritance patterns and heritability estimates from a NCII crossing model which included green and red cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group, indicated differences between green × green and red × green crosses. Green × green crosses exhibited dominance for few non-wrapper leaves, greater efficiency index, and smaller leaf size while red × green crosses showed the opposite dominance pattern.

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John R. Stommel and Kathleen G. Haynes

Inheritance of resistance to tomato anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) S.J. Hughes was evaluated in parental, F1, F2, and backcross populations developed from crosses between adapted resistant (88B147) and susceptible (90L24) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) breeding lines. Resistance was evaluated via measurement of lesion diameters in fruit collected from field-grown plants and puncture inoculated in a shaded greenhouse. Backcross and F2 populations exhibited continuous distributions suggesting multigenic control of anthracnose resistance. Anthracnose resistance was partially dominant to susceptibility. Using generation means analysis, gene action in these populations was best explained by an additive-dominance model with additive × additive epistatic effects. A broad-sense heritability (H) of 0.42 and narrow-sense heritability (h2) of 0.004 was estimated for resistance to C. coccodes. One gene or linkage group was estimated to control segregation for anthracnose resistance in the cross of 90L24 × 88B147.

Open access

F. A. Bliss

Abstract

The precision of a 9-plant hill-plot design in which plants were sown 15 cm apart in a 3 × 3 arrangement compared favorably to that of 3-m-row plots containing approximately 75 plants for the estimation of pod yield of snap beans Phaseolus vulgaris L. Quality traits and sieve size distribution based on pod diameter in both plot designs were similar. Using the square design, the entire 9-plant plot can be taken as the unit of selection, or single plant selection can be practiced when the test plant is grown in the center hill surrounded by 8 uniform guard plants. Single plant selection using this design has been used effectively to modify traits of beans having moderate to high heritability. Selection based on family means should be used for traits with low heritability. Efficiency of the hill-plot design is realized in terms of smaller plot size, fewer required seeds per plot and reduced harvest time.

Open access

R. A. Werner, D. C. Sanders, and W. R. Henderson

Abstract

The inheritance of tolerance to rhizoctonia fruit rot incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn differed depending upon the source of the plant material of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The tolerance in USDA 75B 846-1-1 was controlled by 1 major gene without dominance. The tolerance in USDA 75B 610-3 was polygenic with 4 major genes. Tolerance in USDA 75B 846-1-1 had a narrow-sense heritability of 71% while in USDA 75B 610-3 heritability was 30%. Fruit rot tolerance and resistance to puncture pressure were highly correlated in both families. Fruit shape and fruit rot tolerance were also highly correlated in the family with USDA75B 846-1-1.

Open access

Carol A. Lemke and Martha A. Mutschler

Abstract

The absence or presence of type IV trichomes seemed to be simply inherited in crosses of the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, and Lycopersicon pennellii Correll. F2 and BC1 data showed a good fit to a 15 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, suggesting that the presence of type IV trichomes is controlled by 2 unlinked genes. Broad sense heritability estimates of type IV trichome density were high. Generation means analysis of type IV trichome density indicated that genic interaction was important in the 3 crosses. All plants examined possessed type VI trichomes. Density of type VI trichomes seemed to be under large environmental influences. Broad sense heritability estimates for the density of type VI trichomes were low to moderate. Correlation coefficients comparing adaxial and abaxial trichome density measurements of both types of trichomes were significant for most of the populations studied. Correlation coefficients comparing type IV and type VI trichomes were not significant in most of the populations studied.

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Douglas V. Shaw and Kirk D. Larson

The genetic opportunity for selection of early fruiting strawberry cultivars was evaluated using seedling populations from the Univ. of California (UC) breeding program in three years. Narrow-sense heritabilities for early season yield and for the proportion of an individual's total yield expressed early were moderate (h2 = 0.24-0.53) and broad-sense heritabilities were slightly larger (H2 = 0.31-0.70), suggesting the presence of some nonadditive genetic variance for these traits. These two traits were genetically correlated with each other (rg = 0.78-0.98), but only early yield was consistently genetically correlated with seasonal yield (rg = 0.52-0.82). Selection was performed for each trait using an index on full-sib family means and individual phenotypic values in two of the three years, and predicted response was compared with that obtained using vegetatively propagated runner plants from selected genotypes in the subsequent fruiting season. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) selection response was obtained in one of two years for each trait, and combined analysis demonstrated highly significant (P < 0.01) response for both traits. However, realized response over all traits and years was just 27.3% of that predicted based on the estimated heritabilities and applied selection intensities. These results suggest that selection for early yield should be based at least in part on runner plant evaluations rather than exclusively on seedling performance.

Open access

D. V. Shaw, R. S. Bringhurst, and V. Voth

Abstract

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) seedlings were evaluated for yield, fruit weight, and commercial appearance in two field trials established in 1985 and 1986. Genetic analyses for unbalanced diallels were performed to quantify genetic, environmental, and interaction variance for each trial separately, and for crosses common to two locations in a single year. When data from crosses common to two test locations were analyzed simultaneously, narrow-sense heritabilities (h2) averaged 0.35 (±0.11), 0.21 (±0.07), and 0.08 (±0.06) for yield, fruit weight, and appearance score. Broad-sense heritabilities (H2) were 0.35 (±0.11), 0.27 (±0.12), and 0.21 (±0.11) for the same traits, respectively. These estimates do not differ significantly from heritabilities estimated from the ancestral breeding population 20 years ago. Estimates of H2 for single-location analyses were biased upwards by dominance × location interactions for all traits. Additive × location interactions were detected for appearance score and contributed a small bias to single-location estimates of h2. Use of biased estimates in predicting genetic gain could lead to errors in choice of appropriate selection strategy.