Poster Session 50—Pomology–Physiology/Plant Growth Regulators 21 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F
Patricia Garriz, Hugo Alvarez, and Graciela Colavita
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Carolyn J. DeMoranville
and is being planted with greater frequency in Massachusetts ( Roper, 1999 ). Little attempt has been made to document the growth of both fruit and vines in a modern commercial cranberry production setting. Chandler (1952) originally described the
Zhengyu Huang and Kimberly Ann Falco
Plant responses to plant growth regulators (PGRs) often include increases in size, biomass, and yield, thereby differentiating them from other pesticides (e.g., herbicides, fungicides, insecticides), which often include damage, inhibition, or
Mario Pérez-Grajales, Víctor A. González-Hernández, Ma. Carmen Mendoza-Castillo, Cecilia Peña-Valdivia, Aureliano Peña-Lomelí, and Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos
Six manzano hot chile pepper landraces (Capsicum pubescens R & P) were evaluated to identify genotypes which might contribute toward obtaining superior hybrids by providing the following characteristics: low height, short internodes, rapid biomass accumulation, high harvest index, high fruit quality, and high photosynthetic rate. The landraces studied were `Chiapas', `Huatusco I', `Huatusco II', `Perú', `Puebla', and `Zongolica'. Plants were grown in a shaded glasshouse for 9 months, with drip irrigation. Growth, biomass distribution, fruit quality and yield were determined. All varieties exhibited advantageous characteristics, i.e., large fruit (60 mL) with thick pericarp (4.2 mm) in `Puebla'; short internodes (10 cm) in `Zongolica' and `Huatusco II'; high harvest index (0.24), high yield (18 to 19 t·ha−1) and high relative growth rates (0.12 g·g−1·d−1) in `Perú' and `Puebla'; and high dry mass accumulation (450 g/plant) in `Chiapas'. The highest photosynthesis rate in manzano hot pepper was 7.7 μmol of CO2/m2/s at 500 μmol photons/m2/s, in `Zongolica' and `Puebla'.
Wei Qiang Yang and Barbara L. Goulart
Aluminum (Al) and phosphorus (P) interactions were investigated in mycorrhizal (M) and nonmycorrhizal (NM) highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) plantlets in a factorial experiment. The toxic effects of Al on highbush blueberry were characterized by decreased shoot, root, and total plant dry mass. Many of the negative effects of Al on plant root, shoot, and total dry matter production were reversed by foliar P and N application, indicating P or N uptake were limited by high Al concentration. However, Al-mediated growth reduction in P-stressed plants indicated that the restriction of P uptake by high Al may not have been the only mechanism for Al toxicity in this experiment. Root Al and P concentration were negatively correlated in NM but not M plantlets, suggesting mycorrhizal infection may alter P uptake processes. Al uptake was also affected by mycorrhizal infection, with more Al accumulating in M plantlet roots and leaves. Correlations among foliar ion concentrations were also affected by mycorrhizal fungal infection.
Martin Makgose Maboko and Christian Phillipus Du Plooy
farmers in South Africa ( Maboko et al., 2012a ). For good fruit set and better yield, pollination, germination of pollen grains, pollen tube growth, fertilization, and fruit initiation must take place successfully ( Kinet and Peet, 1997 ). Pepper plants
Ertan Yildirim, Huseyin Karlidag, Metin Turan, Atilla Dursun, and Fahrettin Goktepe
decrease negative environmental impacts resulting from inefficient use of chemical fertilizers is inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). These bacteria exert beneficial effects on plant growth and development and therefore may be used
Jasim Uddain, Sanzida Islam Tripti, Mohammad Shah Jahan, Nasrin Sultana, Md Jahedur Rahman, and Sreeramanan Subramaniam
al., 2015 ). Vermicompost also significantly stimulates the growth and productivity of plants ( Edwards, 1998 ). Vermicompost is used as organic fertilizer to improve soil aeration and enhance soil microorganisms, plant growth, and eventually crop
Muntubani D.S. Nzima, George C. Martin, and Chic Nishijima
We investigated the development of leaf area (LA) and the distribution of dry matter within branches of 25-year-old, alternate-bearing `Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees that were in their natural “on” (heavy) or “off” (light) bearing cycles to determine the immediate and delayed effects of fruiting on shoot growth. Compared to “off” trees, individual leaves of “on” trees were greater in number and expanded twice as fast during the first 30 days after full bloom (FB) (FB + 30). Mature, fully expanded leaves of “on” trees were smaller (124.1±3.26 cm2) than those from “off” tree (163.3±3.40 cm2), indicating delayed demands of fruiting on initial leaf growth. Total LA per current shoot was greater in “on” than “off” trees because shoots of “on” trees averaged eight leaves, compared with six for “off” trees. More inflorescence buds per shoot (seven vs. three buds) abscised from “on” than from “off” trees. About 60% of the young developing nuts had abscised by FB + 30 when they weighed <250 mg each and another 25% abscised between FB + 30 and FB + 60 when individual nuts weighed ≈400 mg. The average total dry mass (DM) of individual branches of “on” trees increased 1322% (5·9 to 83·9 g) compared to 598% (4·2 to 29·3 g) in “off” trees. Besides nuts, leaves accumulated the greatest amount of dry matter within individual branches followed in decreasing order by current wood, 1-year-old wood, and inflorescence buds. DMs of individual leaves of “on” trees averaged between 15% and 48% greater than leaves of “off” trees. “Off” trees invested 4.6 g of dry matter into individual 1-year-old wood and 2.1 g into current wood. “On” trees, however, invested 1.3 g of dry matter into 1-year-old wood and 4.3 g of dry matter into current wood. One-year-old wood was an important major source of carbohydrates for developing leaves, current wood, rachises, and nuts. The immediate demands of fruiting on individual components of a branch were measured as losses in DMs. Individual leaves, current wood, 1-year wood, and rachises lost 1.1%, 0.3%, 1.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, of the average total DMs of individual branches of “on” trees. This loss was equivalent to 5.7%, 5.9%, 26.7%, and 16.4%, respectively, of the seasonal average peak DMs of the respective individual components of the branch.
Marc van Iersel
107 POSTER SESSION (Abstr. 665–676) Growth and Development–Floriculture