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Sadanand A. Dhekney, Zhijian T. Li, Michael E. Compton, and Dennis J. Gray

) necessitates optimization of protocols for culture initiation and maintenance. Although somatic embryogenesis from Vitis was reported previously ( Carmi et al., 2005 ; Gray and Mortensen, 1987 ; Kikkert et al., 2005 ; Perrin et al., 2001 ), few varieties

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Seong Min Woo and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

adventitious shoot development. For example, regeneration via shoot organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was obtained in African violet ( Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) leaf and petiole explants ( Mithila et al., 2003 ) and leaf tissues of Rosa L. hybrid

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Elina Yankova-Tsvetkova, Ivanka B. Semerdjieva, Rozalia Nikolova, and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

podium, and ( D ) mature ES with polar nuclei and hooked sinergids. Magnification ×400. fa = filiform apparatus; sin = synergid; egc = egg cell; pn = polar nuclei; pd = podium. Fig. 5. Embryogenesis: ( A ) zygote in the ovule, ( B ) yang embryo and

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Ricardo Goenaga, Mark Guiltinan, Siela Maximova, Ed Seguine, and Heber Irizarry

to improve yield per area, germplasm conservation, and rapid distribution of high-yielding clones ( Maximova et al., 2008 ). Somatic embryogenesis using floral explants has been the only method successfully developed for the de novo regeneration of

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Tao Wang, Ruijie Hao, Huitang Pan, Tangren Cheng, and Qixiang Zhang

genes for qRT-PCR analyses. In mei, translation elongation factor 2 ( TEF2 ) has been used as a reference gene for a putative homolog gene of Group 2 late embryogenesis abundant protein gene in Arabidopsis thaliana ( PmLEA ) expression analyses under

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Nancy J. Zimmerman and Nancy A. Reichert

Seed and seedling cotyledon explants from 14 cultivars were placed on 2 media types to induce organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Shoots or somatic embryos were counted to determine effects of cultivar, explant and regeneration type on overall regeneration success. Opposite explant preferences were observed for each regeneration type. In somatic embryogenesis, greater numbers of seedling cotyledons were able to respond, while in organogenesis, seed cotyledons responded in greatest numbers. However, within each cultivar, no explant preferences were observed (except in `Picklebush'). Four cultivars displayed a preference for the somatic embryogenesis regeneration protocol over organogenesis: `Burpee Hybrid II' and `Burpless F1 Hybrid' (fresh market types), and `Cross Country' and `Picklebush' (pickling types). The best individual regeneration rates were obtained with `Cross Country' and `Picklebush' - both for somatic embryogenesis.

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Tracie K. Matsumoto, David T. Webb, and Adelheid R. Kuehnle

Histological analysis of somatic embryos derived from in vitro-grown lamina of Anthurium andraeanumshowed bipolarity with the presence of shoot and root poles connected by procambium. Vascular connections between the explant and somatic embryos were not observed. Storage of proteins, starch and raphides as well as a suspensor-like structure and an epidermis were observed in the somatic embryos. Origin of the somatic embryos was from a proembryonic cell complex or possibly from a single cell by direct embryogenesis. Both modes of somatic embryogenesis arose from the mesophyll.

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Zhengrong Hu, Erick Amombo, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Aoyue Bi, Huihui Zhu, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

) relative expression of gene that encodes one kind of C-repeat-binding factor/DRE-binding factor ( CBF1 ), ( B ) late embryogenesis abundant proteins LEA , ( C ) superoxide dismutase Cu/Zn SOD , ( D ) and peroxidase POD-2 in cold-sensitive genotype WBDg

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D.J. Gray, K.A. Labeau, and C.M. Benton

The development of grape somatic embryos (Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless) was studied using high-resolution light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Somatic embryos develop either from discrete embryogenic cell clusters (indirect somatic embryogenesis) or from previously formed somatic embryos (direct somatic embryogenesis). In both instances, embryo development begins when a small, isodiametric, densely cytoplasmic cell undergoes a series of organized divisions, which are identical to those observed during zygotic embryogenesis. Developing embryos pass through recognizable embryonic stages, remaining white and opaque through maturity. Upon germination, embryos begin to enlarge, become yellow, then green, and develop into morphologically correct plants. The cells of somatic embryos contain little starch, but abundant storage proteins. However, lipids comprise the primary storage compound. Some developmental abnormalities occur during embryogenesis, including overly enlarged hypocotyls and fewer or more than two cotyledons. In addition, relatively few somatic embryos grow into plants primarily due to inadequate shoot apical meristem development. These abnormalities are best attributed to inadequacies of the in vitro environment of medium in a culture vessel when compared to the in vivo environment of a seed.

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Keith Redenbaugh

embryogenesis literature for tropical crops was greatly appreciated.