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W. Keith Patterson

Five year old 'Bluecrop' blueberry plants were subjected to five irrigation regimes over a two year period to determine the influence on yield, berry weight, and plant growth. The plants were in 140 liter open-ended barrels to isolate different rates of moisture application. Ten plants/treatments were utilized in this study, with each plant considered a rep. Total yields did not follow a predictable pattern. Plants receiving 12 and 16 liters of water 3x per week produced larger berries, and resulted in larger dry weights at termination of this study. Plants receiving 20 liters 1x per week produced smaller berries than other treatments, lower yields in year 2, and smallest dry weight at end of the study.

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Angela K. Tedesco, Gail R. Nonnecke, Nick E. Christians, John J. Obrycki, and Mark L. Gleason

Field plots of four production systems of `Tristar' dayneutral and `Earliglow' June-bearing strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.), established in 1993, included conventional practices (CONV), integrated crop management practices (ICM), organic practices using granulated corn gluten meal, a natural weed control product, (ORG-CGM), and organic practices using a natural turkey manure product (ORG-TM). `Earliglow' total yield from CONV plots in 1994 was similar to ICM and ORG-CGM, but greater than ORG-TM. Average berry weight and marketable yield were greater in the CONV system than both organic systems. CONV, ICM, and ORG-CGM plots had more runners and daughter plants than ORG-TM. Plots with CONV herbicide treatments were similar to ICM and ORG-CGM for percentage weed cover 1 month after renovation. `Tristar' crown number, crown and root dry weights, yield, and berry number were reduced when plants were grown under straw mulch in ORG-CGM and ORG-TM compared to CONV and ICM plots with polyethylene mulch.

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Bruce P. Bordelon and J.N. Moore

Various plant growth regulators were used to stimulate endosperm and embryo development in four stenospermic grape cultivars. Five antigibberellins were applied to clusters at 1000 and 100 ppm two weeks prior to bloom. Two cytokinins were applied at 1000, 500, and 250 ppm 20 days after bloom. Combinations of the treatments were also made. Data collected included: 1) cluster weight, 2) berry weight, 3) number of `sinker' and `floater' seed traces, 4) `sinker' weight and 5) percent germination. Significant differences were found among treatments for some of the variables. Differences also occurred among cultivars. Percent germination was greater for cultivars with large seed traces. The technique appears to have promise as an alternative to ovule culture/embryo rescue for intercrossing stenospermic grapes.

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Blair Sampson, Steve Noffsinger, Creighton Gupton, and James Magee

Fruit set in the muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) depended on insect cross-pollination, although flowers were well adapted for selfing. Pollinizer cultivars produced about half of their optimal fruit set when selfed, but cross-pollination was needed to reach an optimal fruit set of 33.7%. Eighty-one percent of the overall fruit set in pistillate vines was attributed to insect cross-pollination; wind played only a small role. Diminished fruit set and fewer seeds per berry occurred in cultivars receiving no effective cross-pollination. Components of fruit quality were not profoundly affected by the pollination treatments, although seed set and berry weight in pistillate cultivars was lower in the absence of cross-pollination. Parthenocarpy was rare, except in `Fry Seedless'. Muscadine production throughout the southeastern United States depends on cross-pollination by indigenous insects, particularly bees. To ensure consistently high yields, bees must have safe access to flowers and their nesting sites must be preserved.

Open access

Andrew G. Reynolds

Abstract

Five-year-old ‘Riesling’ grape (Vitis vinifera) vines growing in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia were subjected to three crop levels (full crop, two clusters per shoot, and one cluster per shoot) in combination with no shoot thinning or thinning to 24 shoots per meter of row. Reduction in crop level improved vine size and cane periderm formation slightly. Yield per vine was linearly related to crop level, but berry weight, berries per cluster, and cluster weight increased with decreasing crop level. °Brix and pH increased and titratable acidity decreased with reduction in crop level. Thinning to 24 shoots per meter of row provided some improvement in yield components and °Brix. Crop loads below 10 kg of fruit per kilogram of cane prunings are necessary to achieve adequate fruit maturity under Okanagan conditions.

Open access

Chad E. Finn and J.J. Luby

Abstract

Progenies from crosses among 17 highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), lowbush (V. angustifolium Ait.), and V. corymbosum/V. angustiforium hybrid parents were evaluated in 1983 and 1984 of dates for 50% bloom and 50% ripe fruit, length of the fruit development interval, and berry weight. Additive genetic variance was more important than nonadditive genetic variance, based on general combining ability (GCA) variance components. Heritability estimates were moderately high (0.44-0.78) for all traits. GCA effects were largely dependent on the parents’ ancestry. A long fruit development interval was not necessarily associated with large fruit size. Selection for large fruit size, late bloom period, early ripening, and short fruit development interval in this population should be successful. Parental phenotype should be indicative of relative progeny performance.

Open access

E.W. Hellman and J.N. Moore

Abstract

Cultivars of 5 highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and 5 rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei Reade) blueberries were each pollinated with a series of cultivars of varying genetic relationship. A significant reduction in mean berry weight was associated with an increase in the degree of relationship between parents for one highbush and one rabbiteye cultivar. The mean number of seed per berry was significantly reduced and was associated with an increase in the degree of relationship for 3 highbush and 2 rabbiteye cultivars. Level of inbreeding did not affect percentage seed germination. Two highbush cultivars demonstrated a significant reduction in mean seedling fresh weight associated with an increase in the level of inbreeding. Rabbiteye seedling vigor data were insufficient to draw any conclusions on inbreeding effects. Variability of cultivars in response to cross-pollination among related individuals suggests that other factors may be more influential in some instances.

Open access

D. R. McCaskill and J. R. Morris

Abstract

Succinic acid -2,2-dimethylhydrazide (daminozide, SADH) applied at first-bloom or peak-bloom at 1000, 2000, or 3000 ppm did not statistically alter yield in 1969. 1000 ppm applied between first- and peak-bloom in 1970 increased yield over the control, but no yield advantage was obtained at 500, 750, or 1000 ppm in 1971. Yield increases were due mainly to increases in the number of berries/cluster when daminozide was applied during early bloom as compared to application during verasion. Berry weight was reduced when the number of berries/cluster increased. Juice quality and vegetative growth of the grapevine generally decreased as yields increased due to daminozide application. Delaying harvest of grapevines partially overcame the retardation in maturity resulting from daminozide treatment.

Free access

Joseph Naraguma and John R. Clark

Applications of N to blackberry plantings are a common practice in Arkansas, but fertilizer recommendations are largely based on those of other states. The need for information on fertility of a new blackberry from the Arkansas breeding program motivated this study. A three-year-old `Arapaho' blackberry planting at the University of Arkansas Fruit Substation was used for this study. Treatments which began in 1994 and continued through 1996 were: 1) control—no N applied, 2) 56 Kg N/ha applied in a single application in early spring, 3) 112 Kg N/ha applied in a single early spring application, and 4) 112 Kg/ha applied in a split application with one-half applied in the early spring and one-half applied immediately after harvest. Fruit was harvested from the plots in June and total yield and average berry weight determined. Foliar samples were collected in August and elemental analysis conducted. Primocanes in each plot were counted at the end of the growing season. Over the three years, there was no significant treatment effect on yield, berry weight, or primocane number. A trend toward higher primocane number where N was applied was seen, however. Foliar levels of N, P, K, Ca, S, and Mn were affected by either N rate or time of application. The foliar N levels were influenced by N rate and the split application gave the highest concentration. Calcium was higher when no N was applied, Mn was greater at higher N rates while the control had the lowest foliar N level in each year.

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Manjula Carter, John R. Clark, and Mike Phillips

The southern highbush blueberry is a hybrid of Vaccinium corymbosum L. and one or more southern-adapted Vaccinium species. The southern highbush is advantageous to blueberry growers in the South since its fruit ripen 1 to 4 weeks in advance of traditional rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) cultivars. Only limited research has been done on cultural aspects of southern highbush production. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum nitrogen rate for the southern highbush blueberry. A planting of pine straw-mulched `Cape Fear' blueberry was established in 1994 at the Southwest Research and Extension Center, Hope, Ark. Nitrogen rate treatments (0, 67, 134, 202, 269 kg·ha-1 N) were applied annually over a 3-year period (1997-99) with urea as the N source. Soil samples were taken prior to N fertilization to determine if N applied the previous year influenced current soil analysis values. Foliar elemental composition, fruit yield and individual berry weight were also determined for each treatment. Soil analysis indicated that the carryover effect of N applications from previous years was minimal. However, a possible decline in soil pH, Ca, and Mg over time at the higher N rates indicated that these variables should be closely monitored. No consistent relationship was evident between N application rate and soil nitrate. Nitrogen application rate did not have any consistent impact on yield, berry weight or foliar elemental composition. However, based on foliar N, the data indicate that N rates of 67-134 kg·ha-1 N are adequate for southern highbush in mulched culture.