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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ), can also be problematic in certain years in organic orchards. In addition to causing lesions on apple leaves, scab can render the apple nonmarketable when infection results in multiple, scablike blemishes on the apple

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Thomas M. Kon, James R. Schupp, Keith S. Yoder, Leon D. Combs, and Melanie A. Schupp

sensitive, and could increase risk of mechanical transfer of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora . Chemical thinners with potential multisite action had the greatest thinning effects in this trial. LS + SO, an Organic Materials Review Institute

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J.R. Schupp, T. Auxt Baugher, S.S. Miller, R.M. Harsh, and K.M. Lesser

stages, as later timing resulted in deformed fruit and increased the possibility of spreading disease, especially fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ). Implications for growers. Mechanical thinning, being a physical removal technique, has greater

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Morgan L. Cromwell, Lorraine P. Berkett, Heather M. Darby, and Takamaru Ashikaga

[ Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al.] in 2007, so streptomycin sulfate (Agri-Mycin 17; Nufarm Americas, Inc. Burr Ridge, IL) was applied at 1.1 kg·ha −1 on 11 May 2007 using a Rears Pak-Blast 100 sprayer (Rears Manufacturing, Eugene, OR). To

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Marcia R. Ostrom, David S. Conner, Heleene Tambet, Katherine Selting Smith, J. Robert Sirrine, Philip H. Howard, and Michelle Miller

susceptible to fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ), and growers are fearful of bringing in nonresistant varieties to their orchards ( Pashow and Mahr, 2018 ). Fire blight is also a large concern for dessert apple growers ( Bradshaw and Hazelrigg, 2018 ). Last

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Anna Marín, Anne Plotto, Lorena Atarés, and Amparo Chiralt

wounds. Likewise, Roselló et al. (2013) described good results with different strains of this species used for biopreservation of apples and pears against Erwinia amylovora for at least 1 week at 25 °C. In general, it could be said that coating

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R.L. Rusholme Pilcher, J-M. Celton, S.E. Gardiner, and D.S. Tustin

in ‘R5’ for resistance to fire blight [ Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al.] ( Peil et al., 2007 ) and woolly apple aphid ( Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm.; Bus et al., 2007 ), will be useful for marker-assisted selection in rootstock breeding

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Kanin J. Routson, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Steven E. Smith, Gary Paul Nabhan, and Victoria Wyllie de Echeverria

blight ( Erwinia amylovora Burrill) resistance in apple breeding programs that use transgenic early flowering methods to reduce the length of the generation cycles ( Flachowsky et al., 2011 ). We describe genetic diversity and distribution of M. fusca

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Ksenija Gasic and John E. Preece

( Vf/Rvi6 ) to apple scab ( Venturia inaequalis Cke), powdery mildew [ Podosphaera leucotricha , Ell. and Ev. (E.S.Salmon)] and fire blight shoot infection [ Erwinia amylovora Burr. (Winsl. et al.)]. B3F44. Late season, bicolor fruit with long

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Jaume Lordan, Anna Wallis, Poliana Francescatto, and Terence L. Robinson

DeMarree, 1992 ). Location is another key factor that determines orchard success; for instance, localized weather of a site can enhance biotic stresses favoring diseases such as fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora Burill) or winter damage, compromising orchard