Marvin Pritts and James Luby
James Luby and Anne Fennell
James J. Luby, James F. Hancock Jr., and James R. Ballington
James J. Luby and Douglas V. Shaw
James J. Luby and Douglas V. Shaw
Breeders of horticultural food crops are usually concerned with multiple traits related to yield and quality as well as other traits such as biotic and abiotic stresses. Yield in these crops is not solely tonnage of biomass produced in the field. Rather, it is the proportion of the crop that can be harvested and brought to market in a condition and at a price acceptable to the consumer. Quality may include flavor, color, shape, size, degree of damage, nutrient levels, and traits that permit greater perceived food safety or environmental sustainability. Some traits may exhibit phenotypic associations. Traits with unfavorable associations will be of concern to the breeder if the cause is unfavorably correlated genetic effects, especially those resulting from pleiotropy. Several multiple trait selection schemes have been developed, including independent culling levels, tandem selection, and index selection. These schemes can result in improvement even for traits with unfavorable associations. However, the breeder must have a strong rationale for each trait addressed in a breeding program because each additional trait necessitates larger breeding populations and more resources. Thus, the breeder's first challenge for each crop is to determine which traits are most important and which issues are most amenable to a breeding solution.
Matthew Clark, Peter Hemstad, and James Luby
Chad E. Finn and James J. Luby
Progenies from a partial diallel mating scheme using 17 highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), lowbush (V. angustifolium Ait.), and half-high (V. corymbosum/V. angustfolium hybrid) parents were subjectively evaluated for fruit color, picking scar, and firmness in two seasons. General combining ability (GCA) mean squares were significant (P ≤ 0.01 for all traits), but specific combining ability was significant for no traits (P > 0.05). However, the correlation coefficients between the GCA effects and the parental phenotype scores were low, indicating that selection of parents within this material based on their phenotype may not be indicative of progeny performance. GCA effects depended to some extent on the species ancestry. Vaccinium angustifolium parents produced progeny with relatively dark, soft fruit with large scars. Lowbush parents having light-blue fruit produced segregating progenies that were heavily skewed toward dark fruit, regardless of the color or species ancestry of the other parent. When the highbush and half-high parents were crossed with one another, segregation patterns were typical of predominately additive gene action.
Steven J. McKay, James M. Bradeen, and James J. Luby
The commercially successful apple (Malus pumila Mill.) cultivar Honeycrisp is known for its high degrees of crispness and juiciness. This cultivar has been incorporated into numerous breeding programs in an effort to duplicate its desirable texture traits in conjunction with such other traits as reduced postharvest disorders, disease resistance, and improved tree vigor. This study characterizes variability and estimates heritability for several apple fruit texture traits within a large breeding population over several years. Five full-sib families, all sharing ‘Honeycrisp’ as a common parent, were assayed with respect to crispness, firmness, and juiciness using sensory evaluation panels and total work required to fracture tissue using instrumental methods. The incomplete block design of the sensory panels, coupled with best linear unbiased prediction, facilitated the evaluation of a large number of genotypes with small numbers of fruit per genotype while accounting for individual sensory panelist effects. Broad-sense heritability estimates exceeded 0.70 for all four traits. Principal component analysis, applied to the phenotypic data, characterized ‘Honeycrisp’ as having average crispness and low firmness (53rd percentile relative to its offspring) but also as being a relatively extreme example of high juiciness and low work to fracture (first percentile). The improved characterization of desired fruit texture phenotypes and the high levels of broad-sense heritability provide valuable tools for the further development of new, high-quality apple cultivars.
Cynthia Fellman, Emily Hoover, Peter D. Ascher, and James Luby
We evaluated the extent to which `Swenson Red' seeded grape (Vitis × spp.) responded to single and repeated GA3 applications to induce seedless fruit development. Field studies were conducted to test the time of pre-anthesis GA3 application (18, or 24 May or 3 June), the usefulness of postanthesis application, the optimum GA3 concentration (0, 0.075, 0.15, or 0.3 mm), and the method of application. The treatment dates that gave a high percentage of seedless berries with an acceptable berry count per cluster were 24 May with postanthesis application and 3 June pre-anthesis only. The optimum GA3 concentration was 0.15 mm applied both before and after anthesis. The most seedless berries developed when pre- and postanthesis applications were used, indicating many seedless fruit developed from flowers that would have abscised. There was no difference in percent heedlessness, number of berries per cluster, or number of seeds per berry between clusters dipped or sprayed with 0.3 mm GA3. Chemical uame used: gibberellic acid (GA3).
Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, and James J. Luby
The change from asexual to sexual propagation for annual and perennial bedding plants has been successfully accomplished for floral crops, e.g., Pelargonium. Seed-propagated cultivars do not necessarily possess the clonal uniformity of vegetatively propagated cultivars. In the development of F1 hybrid garden chrysanthemums, this lack of uniformity was assessed with the use of consumer sensory evaluations. Seedlings (n = 10–20 plants/cross) were transplanted for field trials in St. Paul and five Minnesota branch stations each year during 1988–94 to test for G × E. Early flowering F1 hybrids, developed from inbred parents with general combining ability, were evaluated for flowering earliness, plant uniformity, and a general rating. Consumer rankings of top performers were not significantly different (5% level) from mum breeders. The top performers for all three ratings were selected each year for repeat evaluation the next year. The two highest performing F1 hybrids were submitted for All American Selection Trials in 1995.