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- Author or Editor: Hazel Y. Wetzstein x
Commercial pesticide formulations of triphenyltin hydroxide, benomyl plus triphenyltin hydroxide, and phosalone completely inhibited pollen germination of pecan [Carya illinoensis Wangenh C. Koch] when incorporated in in vitro germination media at one-fourth to one times the recommended rates. Scanning electron microscopic evaluations of spray effects on receptive stigmatic surfaces showed varying degrees of injury, ranging from minor surface wrinkling with triphenyltin hydroxide to severe collapse and degeneration of stigma papillae with phosalone treatments. Controlled pollinations 1 hour after pesticide sprays resulted in an inhibition of pollen germination and tube growth. Water sprays followed by pollination resulted in normal pollen adherence, hydration, and germination. Chemical names used: methyl[1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate (benomyl); S-[(6-chloro-2-oxo-3-(2H)-benzoxazolyl)methyl] 0,0-diethyl phosphorodithioate (phosalone).
Embryogenesis in higher plants follows a standard developmental program with sequential stages of histodifferentiation, maturation (reserve deposition), and postabscission (desiccation and rapid decline in metabolic activity). In this study, morphological, physiological and anatomical characteristics were integrated to demarcate the developmental stages of pecan embryos. Fruit were collected, morphological characteristics were recorded, fresh and dry weights, and water content of embryos were determined, and embryos were prepared for microscopic study. The procedures used here can be a useful guide for characterizing embryo development in pecan and related species.
Plantlets were recovered from axillary bud cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia, `Summit'). Nodal segments 0.5 to 1.0 cm long were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 5, 10, 20, or 40 μm BA. Best total shoot production was obtained with 10 μm BA; with higher BA levels, shoots were unexpanded and exhibited high mortalities. MS medium supplemented with IBA enhanced rooting by increasing rooting percentage and number per plantlet. Shoots previously proliferated on medium with 5 μm BA rooted significantly better than those multiplied on 10 μM BA. Shoot vigor during rooting was greater in shoots proliferated on 5 vs. 10 μm BA. Root development was not significantly affected by liquid vs. agar-solidifted medium or shoot length. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA), 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
It has been shown that perennial woody plants exhibit marked seasonal changes in nutrient content, carbon metabolism, and organ development. A knowledge of seasonal nutrient allocation and temporal accumulation patterns can be useful in the development of fertilization regimes that reflect the biology of a tree crop. Maintenance of optimum leaf nutrient status is an important priority in pecan cultural practice. However, a systematic evaluation of nutrient resorption is lacking in pecan. In this work, seasonal changes in nutrients and carbohydrates were evaluated in pecan trees grown under orchard conditions. In addition, resorption efficiencies of eight pecan cultivars were evaluated. Significant levels of resorption were observed in all essential elements, but cultivar differences were not significant. Seasonal patterns of nutrient and carbohydrate content in leaf, stem, and shoot tissue, will be presented as well as a structural evaluation of abscission zone formation.
Herbs have been long known to provide health-promoting benefits and are demonstrated to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, and antitumor activities. This study evaluated the effects of drying conditions and extraction protocols on the biochemical activity of three culinary and medicinal herbs: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), and peppermint (Mentha piperita). Leaf tissues were dried by sun, oven-dried at 40 °C, or oven-dried at 70 °C and extracted using 80% methanol or 80% ethanol. Total polyphenol (TPP) using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and antioxidant capacity using the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were determined. Both drying and extraction conditions significantly impacted TPP content and TEAC in the three herb species. Sun-dried or 40 °C oven-dried herbs exhibited significantly higher TPP content and TEAC capacity than fresh samples, suggesting low-temperature drying may be a good postharvest means to store medicinal/culinary herbs. Exposure to 70 °C oven-drying caused significant antioxidant loss. In addition, the current study showed that with fresh tissue, 80% ethanol extraction had significantly higher TPP and TEAC than 80% methanol extraction for all three herbs, yet for dried herbs, the efficacy of ethanol/methanol extraction varied with different drying treatments.
Early pollen-stigma responses were observed microscopically in controlled pollinations of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) C. Koch]. Receptive stigmatic surfaces have rounded, basally attached projecting papillae with an irregularly patterned, noncopious exudate. Polarly flattened pollen, characteristic of grains at anthesis, becomes rounded and hydrated by 1 hr after pollination. Pollen tube emergence is visible within 3 hr of pollination, and extensive pollen tube growth on the stigma is apparent after 8 to 12 hr. Tube growth generally occurs along the stigmatic surface and between adjacent cells. Stigmatic cells collapse after pollen hydration and germination, with collapse extensive 24 hr after pollination. By 48 hr after pollination, stigmatic cells are flattened, and pollen grains and emerged pollen tubes have contents discharged with a similar collapse.
Differentiation and development of the pistillate flower in pecan, [Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch] were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Floral differentiation did not occur until growth resumed in the spring, when the outer bud scales were shed and buds were swollen, but before the inner bud scale was broken. Subsequent floral and inflorescence development were correlated highly with stages of bud and early leaf development. The organogenesis of the pistillate flower was described from inception to the stage of visible inflorescence.
The morphology of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh C. Koch)] pollen from 4 cultivars was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Pollen was triporate, paraisopolar and suboblate, with a tectate and microechinate surface. The exine was thickened around pores. Pollen from the 4 cultivars was indistinguishable. Pollen germinated in vitro after 1 hr. Pollen tubes grew from 1 or 2 pores, with one germ tube becoming dominant. Pollen germination decreased dramatically after anther dehiscence. Less than 1% of the pollen germinated 5 days after collection.
Floral initiation and development in the hybrid geranium, Pelargonium X hortorum Bailey, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Inflorescence initiation was marked by a raising of the apex followed by the formation of convex flower primordia. In floral development, 5 sepal primordia were delimited, closely followed by 5 petal primordia. Imbricate sepals enclosed the floral apex during later developmental stages. Five antesepalous, then 5 antepetalous stamen primordia were initiated. Five gynoecial primordia arose, forming a pentagonal ridge, carpellary lobes, and eventually an elongate style with stigma. Three of the antepetalous stamen primordia developed into filaform starninodia.
Structural differences in leaves of pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch] of cultivars resistant and susceptible to the scab pathogen, Cladosporium caryigenum (Ell. et Lang) Gottwald com. nov (formerly designated Fusicladium effusum Wint.), were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In immature leaf tissue, cultivar resistance was correlated with fewer peltate glandular trichomes, a greater frequency of collapsed trichomes, and abundant phenolic compounds in the palisade parenchyma and bundle sheath cells compared to susceptible cultivars. In mature, scab-resistant leaves of all cultivars, trichomes were collapsed and less numerous, phenolics were abundant, and cuticular and epidermal cell wall development was greater compared to that of immature leaves.