Dyremple B. Marsh
Dyremple B. Marsh
The number of people of Caribbean, African, and Asian descent living in the United States is quite high. Most of these people live in diverse ethnic centers, such as New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Miami, and Atlanta. It might be profitable to provide traditional foods (2, 3) for these groups. Many of these foods already are imported into the United States. However, importation sometimes is not possible because of (a) inadequate storage facilities, (b) low cost effectiveness, and (c) small amounts that need to be imported (J.R. Suah, CARDI, personal communication). Three of these crops that may be grown in Missouri are hot pepper, ‘Scotch Bonnet,’ a low moisture pumpkin, ‘Calabash,’ and yam. ‘Scotch Bonnet,’ pepper grown under tropical conditions is semiperennial with peak production occurring in the first year. ‘Calabash’ pumpkin, requires a growing season of at least 7 months. Yam requires a 6- to 10-month growing period under tropical conditions. The potential production of these vegetables in the United States has not been adequately investigated. We, therefore, investigated their performance under mid-Missouri growing conditions.
Dyremple B. Marsh and Steve Maledy
Efforts to produce specialty crops by Missouri farmers have been met with varying success. This success is reduced by the lack of established cultural practices necessary for the economic production of these crops. Ten kiwano plant introductions obtained from the Central Regional Plant Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa, were planted in the greenhouse. Seedling vigor was determined by shoot length, shoot dry weight, and number of leaves produced. Uniform seedlings from each accession were transplanted in the field with within row spacings of 0.9 m and 1.3 m. Seedling vigor varied significantly between accessions. Yields of field grown kiwano were affected by plant spacing, with the closer spaced plants having the higher yields. Plant spacing had no effect on fruit color, fruit length, or fruit width. Incidents of fusarium wilt were prevalent at both plant spacings.
Lurline E. Marsh and Dyremple B. Marsh
Increasing seed moisture has been beneficial in improving seedling emergence of some crops. Seed moisture contents of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes (MN13, Pinkeye Purple Hull, and IT 82E-16) and two pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) (ICPL 85024 and ICPL 8304) were modified by incubating a 10 seed: 4 celite: 13 water (by weight) mixture at 15C. Conditioned seeds had moisture contents ranging from 46% to 64%, while nontreated seeds ranged from 4% to 8%. Matriconditioned and nontreated seeds had <15% emergence at 28 days after planting (DAP) in dry field conditions, where precipitation was <41 mm. In greenhouse tests at 14 DAP, matriconditioning had a negative effect on seeds in flooded, moist, and dry soils. The percent emergence for these seeds was 40% when compared to 60% for nontreated ones. Conditioning did not affect percent emergence at 7 DAP, days to first emergence, and percentage of germinated, unemerged seeds at 14 DAP. In the dry soil, emergence was less and later, and more germinated, unemerged seeds were present at 14 DAP. Cowpeas averaged 56% germination and pigeonpeas were 27%.
John C. Beaulieu and Dyremple B. Marsh
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to examine the relationship between tissue B concentration and dry matter accumulation in broccoli. `Pirate ' was grown in fine silica sand and supplied nutrient solutions containing 0.2, 0.8, 1.4, 2.0, 2.6, 3.2, 3.8, and 4.4 mg·liter-1 B. Plants were sampled for the 5th, 10th, and 15th fully expanded mature leaf, and plant material was collected' for dry matter measurement and boron analysis at each growth stage. The lowest specific leaf weights for the 5th, 10th, and 15th leaves were obtained with the 4.4 mg·liter-1 treatment. At maturity, leaf, petiole stalk, and shoot dry weights were lowest at 4.4 mg·liter-1 B. Treatments supplying less than 3.2 mg· liter-1 B, resulted in a notable decrease in tissue B concentrations from the 5th to the 15th leaf. There was a linear increase' in B concentration in all leaf tissue samples as B treatment increased. At maturity, optimum B concentrations of 531.5, 73.7, 29.8, and 64.6 mg·g-1 were found for the lamina, petiole, stalk, and head, respectively. These concentrations occurred in plants receiving treatment levels of 2.0-3.8 mg·liter-1 B.
Paige Hanning, Dyremple B. Marsh, and Helen Swartz
The use of cowpea as a forage for Central Missouri has been limited. High mid summer temperatures and frequent drought suggest that an alternative forage for livestock may be advantageous during the hot summer months. The ability of cowpea to withstand drought, high temperature and maintain high foliage protein, justifies research of the forage potential of this crop. Forage yield potential of two cowpea cultivars was evaluated in field experiments in 1968 and 1989, For both years a split plot experimental design was utilized with cowpea cultivar the main plot and harvest date the subplot Dry matter yields for both cultivars were similar at the early harvest dates. However, both fresh and dry shoot yields of Vita 3 (V3) were significantly higher than that of California Blackeye #5 (CB #5) at the later harvest stages. CB #5 plants produced a significantly higher stem dry weight while V3 produced higher leaf dry matter. Foliage regrowth after clipping was substantial for both cowpea cultivars. However, V3 produced 30% higher growth than CB #5. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDDM) varied with sample date (plant age) and plant parts sampled. IVDDM was 77% for leaves and 60% for stems of CB#5, and 80% for leaves and 65% for stems of V3.
John C. Beaulieu and Dyremple B. Marsh
Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars, Carver, Potojam, Jewel and Centennial were evaluated for slip production, using topsoil, sawdust, sand and a general-purpose peat-based commercial growing media as bed covers. Temperature measured 2 inches (5.1 cm) below the surface of the hot bed varied with covers and date measured. Sand maintained the highest bed temperature, 77 °F (25.0 °C) at 0800 hr and 79 °F (26.1 °C) at 1400 hr, throughout the growing season. Peat-covered roots produced the maximum number of slips/plot (111), while roots covered with topsoil and sawdust produced comparable yields, 55 and 45 slips/plot, respectively. Slip production varied according to harvest date, with the third harvest producing the most slips/plot (83 and 153, in year 1 and year 2, respectively), which, was likely related to increased temperatures. Cultivar significantly influenced number of slips, length of slips, and number of roots per slip. `Potojam' was the most prolific slip producer for both early and mid season production under all bed covers.
Paige Hanning, Dyremple B. Marsh, and Mohsen Dkhili
Chemically fixed nitrogen is a costly import for Caribbean Basin Countries. Increased cost of fertilizer only serves to reduce crop yields in these areas. This greenhouse research was undertaken to evaluate the N2 fixing capabilities and yield potential of several Phaseolus vulgaris lines developed for use in Caribbean Basin countries. Ten common bean lines from breeding programs at the Universities of Puerto Rico and Wisconsin and two efficient Rhizobium phaseoli strains were used for the study. Plants treated with Rhizobium UMR 1899 and UMR 1632 had significantly higher stem and leaf dry weight than the control plants. Bean lines WBR 22-34, WBR 22-50, WBR 22-55, PR9056-98B and the cultivar Coxstone showed increased dry matter accumulation over that of the control plants. Plants treated with the Rhizobium strain UMR 1899 had the highest stem and leaf dry matter accumulation. Nodulation was significantly higher when plants were treated with UMR 1632. The lines WBR 22-34 and PR 9056-98B produced more nodules than the other lines used. Pod yield as measured by number of immature pods was highest for PR 9056-98B when inoculated with Rhizobium UMR 1899.
Dyremple B. Marsh, Lurline E. Marsh, and Brian Cooper
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the competitive ability of three Rhizobium strains introduced into Antiguan soil. Strain-specific antisera were prepared against each strain. Field experiments were conducted in Antigua using Rhizobium strains USDA 3384, USDA 3473, and USDA 3474 as a peat-base inoculant and pigeon pea as the test crop. Nodules from the respective treatments were removed and prepared for ELISA studies. There was cross reactivity between the antisera, but it was greatly reduced or eliminated by repeat adsorption with the cells of the cross-reacting strains. Nodule occupancy by plants treated with Rhizobium 3384, 3473, and 3384 was 70%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. Nodules from 3384 and 3474 treated plants contained cells with no antigenic homology to the three antisera. We concluded that these nodules were developed from indigenous Rhizobium strains found in Antiguan soils.
Dyremple B. Marsh and K. B. Paul
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the influence of container type and cell size on cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L.) Capitata Group] transplant growth and subsequent yield. Cabbage seedlings were grown in the greenhouse in two types of containers, Sutton polystyrene and Speedling styrofoam “Todd Trays”. Four sizes of each tray were tested, ranging from 8.0 to 80.5 cm3 for polystyrene and 7.5 to 80 cm3 for styrofoam. In general, stem diameter, plant height, and leaf area of seedlings increased with increase in container size, but container type had no influence. In the field, head width and length were similar for all treatments. Plants grown from the large cell sizes had higher head weight than those from small cell sizes.