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Open access

Travis W. Shaddox, J. Bryan Unruh, Mark E. Johnson, Clark D. Brown, and Greg Stacey

Nutrient use on United States golf courses increases management costs and has the potential to influence ecosystems. Therefore, it is critical to assess nutrient use and management practices to develop and teach best management practices. The objectives of this survey were to measure nutrient use and management practices on United States golf courses in 2021, and to determine if changes occurred since 2006. A survey was developed and distributed via e-mail to 14,033 United States golf facilities, with 1444 responding. From 2006 to 2021, the total projected nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P2O5), and soluble potash (K2O) applied declined by 41%, 59%, and 54%, to 54,376, 13,761, and 41,386 tons, respectively. These reductions were attributed to course closures, reduced fertilized acres, reduced application rates, and nutrient use restrictions. The percentage of facilities that did not apply P2O5 increased to 21%, which is likely a result of P2O5 application restrictions. Soil testing was associated with greater application rates of N, P2O5, and K2O. Returning clippings, using precision fertilizer applications, reducing turfgrass acreage, and considering N release from soil organic matter were associated with reduced application rates of P2O5. Golf course superintendents have contributed to nationwide reductions in N, P2O5, and K2O, as evidenced by the reduction in fertilized acres and the reduction in nutrient use rates from 2006 to 2021.

Open access

Travis W. Shaddox, J. Bryan Unruh, Mark E. Johnson, Clark D. Brown, and Greg Stacey

Integrated pest management (IPM) is an important component of golf course maintenance and includes conventional chemical pesticide use as well as nonchemical cultural management practices. Determining how frequent pest management practices are used on golf courses is critical when developing educational and outreach programs. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of pest management practices and pesticide mixing and storage facilities on US golf courses. A survey was sent to 14,033 operational US golf facilities with 10% responding. Reliance on all conventional chemical pesticides increased from 2015 to 2021. The reliance on biological control products declined to 14% and reliance on the nonpesticide practice of using plant growth regulators remained equivalent to 2015. The most common pest management practices included monitoring weather patterns and scouting for pests, with 93% of golf facilities reporting the use of both. The use of written IPM and pesticide application plans increased from 44% to 63% of golf facilities between 2015 and 2021, respectively. Generally, mixing and storage facilities remained unchanged from 2015 to 2021. US golf facilities continue to use nonchemical pest management practices, but reliance on chemical pesticides has increased.

Free access

Cari A. Schmitz, Matthew D. Clark, James J. Luby, James M. Bradeen, Yingzhu Guan, Katherine Evans, Benjamin Orcheski, Susan Brown, Sujeet Verma, and Cameron Peace

Establishing marker-locus-trait associations to enable marker-assisted breeding depends on having an extensive, reliable database for phenotypic traits of interest in relevant germplasm. A reference germplasm set of 467 apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars, selections, and seedlings (referred to as individuals) was identified as part of the USDA-Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) project, RosBREED. The germplasm set provides efficient allelic representation of current parents in RosBREED demonstration apple breeding programs at Cornell University, Washington State University, and the University of Minnesota. Phenotyping at the three locations was conducted according to standardized protocols, focusing on fruit traits evaluated at harvest and after 10 and 20 weeks of refrigerated storage. Phenotypic data were collected for the sensory texture traits of firmness, crispness, and juiciness as well as for instrumental texture measures. In 2010 and 2011, fruit from 216 and 330 individuals, respectively, were harvested and a total of 369 individuals were evaluated over the two years. Correlations between sensory and instrumental texture measures were high in some instances. Moderate year-to-year repeatability of trait values was observed. Because each location had a largely unique set of individuals, as well as differing environmental conditions, means, ranges, and phenotypic variances differed greatly among locations for some traits. Loss of firmness and crispness during storage was more readily detected instrumentally than by the sensory evaluation.