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M.B. Fiely and T.E. Morelock

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) varies in tolerance to saturated soil conditions. Plant vigor was assessed for plants flooded in autoclaved and nonautoclaved field soil. Decline of vigor was more rapid for plants flooded in nonautoclaved field soil, indicating that flooding tolerance may be influenced by soil borne pathogens.

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M.B. Fiely and T.E. Morelock

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) varies in tolerance to saturated soil conditions. Plant vigor was assessed for plants flooded in autoclaved and nonautoclaved field soil. Decline of vigor was more rapid for plants flooded in nonautoclaved field soil, indicating that flooding tolerance may be influenced by soil borne pathogens.

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C.H. Becker and T.E. Morelock

Southernpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a popular home garden, fresh-market, and processing vegetable in the southeastern United States. Processing schedules are normally controlled by planting the same variety at different dates. Difference in genetic maturity would allow growers to stagger harvest dates by planting different maturity peas on the same day and allow genotype to alter harvest dates. This procedure would allow growers to better utilize available soil moisture and optimum planting dates. Ten southernpea varieties and breeding lines representing early, medium, and late maturity were planted in Kibler, Ark., during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Five different planting dates were used. Flowering dates and days to maturity were recorded and plots were harvested for yield. Results indicate that relative days to maturity can be significantly shortened or lengthened by the time of planting. Varieties planted in early June or early August took longer to mature then when they were planted in late June or early July.

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T.E. Morelock, P.W. Simon, and C.E. Peterson

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L.P. Brandenberger, T.E. Morelock, and J.C. Correll

Field observations indicate that polygenic resistance to downy mildew (Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae) was observed during the course of a breeding program to develop polygenic resistance to white rust (Albugo occidentalis). Field studies were initiated using five cultivars and one breeding line to quantify the level of resistance to downy mildew and white rust. Separate plots were inoculated with each pathogen at a specific spore concentration and then subjected to a minimum dew period of 12h. Infection was quantified by measuring latent period, lesion number, lesion size, sporulation and percent leaf area infected.

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T.E. Morelock, D.R. Motes, and A.R. Gonzalez

Southernpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important crop in the southern United States. The Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station announces the release of three varieties. `Excel' produces a compact bush plant, from 45–60 cm tall with no basal runners. Pods are deep purple, 20–25 cm long and shell easily at the green mature stage. Flowering and fruiting are concentrated, with the pods produced at the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles. Seed has a bright pinkeye and is similar in size to pinkeye purple hull BVR but matures 3–4 days earlier. `Early Scarlet' produces a medium sized plant, from 60–75 cm tall with no basal runners. Pods are light red, 20–25 cm long and shell easily at the green mature stage. Flowering and fruiting are concentrated at the top of the plant with pods produced on medium-length peduncles. Seed has a light pinkeye and is similar in size to `Pinkeye Purple Hull BVR' but matures 2–3 days earlier. `Arkansas Blackeye #1' produces a bush plant, from 50–65 cm tall with no basal runners. The pods are silver, 20–25 cm long and shell easily. Flowering and fruiting are concentrated with the pods produced in the top of the plant on medium-length peduncles. Seed has a distinct medium-sized blackeye and the seed are very similar in size, type and eye pattern to `California #5 Blackeye'. Maturity is normally 2–3 days earlier than `Pinkeye Purple Hull BVR'.

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L.P. Brandenberger, T.E. Morelock, and J.C. Correll

Field observations indicate that polygenic resistance to downy mildew (Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae) was observed during the course of a breeding program to develop polygenic resistance to white rust (Albugo occidentalis). Field studies were initiated using five cultivars and one breeding line to quantify the level of resistance to downy mildew and white rust. Separate plots were inoculated with each pathogen at a specific spore concentration and then subjected to a minimum dew period of 12h. Infection was quantified by measuring latent period, lesion number, lesion size, sporulation and percent leaf area infected.

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L.A. Wasilwa, T.E. Morelock, and J.C. Correll

Anthracnose of cucurbits, caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare, is composed of three races (race 1, 2, and 2B). The inheritance of race 1 in cucumber is reported to be controlled by a single recessive gene. Although the mode of inheritance to race 2 in cucumber has not been determined, it has been suggested that is quantitatively inherited. Four cucumber cultivars, H19 from two sources [the commercial seed (P1) and the breeders seed (P2)], Pixie (P3), and Marketer (P4), that were considered highly resistant, moderately resistant and highly susceptible, respectively, to race 2 were used as the parents in this study. Crosses between resistant × susceptible and resistant × moderately resistant were made. Some reciprocal crosses also were made. The F1 progeny were then evaluated for resistance to race 2 in a cotyledon assay. Disease severity was assessed 8 days after inoculation using a disease rating scale of 0–7, whereby 0 = healthy plant and 7 = 100% chlorosis or necrosis. All progeny from P1 × P1 were highly resistant (disease severity 19 < 2.5); P2 × P2 and P3 × P3 were highly moderately resistant (disease severity 2.6–4.9); and all P4 × P4 progeny were highly susceptible (disease severity > 5.0) to race 2. All F1 progeny showed a continuum of disease ratings from highly resistant to moderately resistant to race 2. The disease ratings of the F1 progeny would indicate that resistance to race 2 is controlled by multiple genes.

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J.A. Kirkpatrick, J.B. Murphy, and T.E. Morelock

Interest in the health benefits of vegetables prompted an investigation of the levels of carotenoids in commercial varieties and UA breeding lines of spinach. Plant carotenoids perform a critical function as antioxidants, providing protection against a variety of reactive oxygen species generated primarily during photosynthesis. When ingested by humans, these compounds maintain their antioxidant activities and are receiving considerable attention in relation to multiple health benefits, including cancer prevention. While the best-known and most-studied carotenoid is beta-carotene, other carotenoids are now receiving attention due to their higher antioxidant activity compared to beta-carotene. Most dark-green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and kale, are relatively high in carotenoids, especially lutein. In this study, significant differences in average content of both lutein and beta-carotene were found between genetic lines of spinach. Some lines exhibited considerable variation between plants, while others were highly uniform. There was a very high correlation (r 2 = 0.96) between lutein content and betacarotene content. The significant difference between spinach lines suggests that improvement of general carotenoid antioxidants and lutein could be obtained through a breeding program.

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T.E. Morelock, D.R. Motes, and A.R. Gonzalez

Southernpeas (Vigna ungurculata) are a popular crop in the southeastern United States. They are an important crop to Arkansas processors, market gardeners, and home gardeners. While the bulk of the acreage produced in the state is pinkeye purple hull types, there is a demand for other horticultural types. At present, there is not a well-adapted blackeye that is available to producers in the state. For that reason, Arkansas Blackeye #1 is being released. Arkansas Blackeye #1 has been widely tested under the designation Arkansas 91-245. It produces a medium-sized bush plant that is well suited to conventional or narrow row spacing and matures 2 to 3 days earlier than Coronet under Arkansas conditions. Arkansas Blackeye #1 produces yield similar to the best pinkeye purple hull types. Samples have been canned by the Food Science Dept. at the Univ. of Arkansas and the canned samples have compared favorably to the industry standards.