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Open access

J. R. Morris, D. L. Cawthon, G. S. Nelson, and P. E. Cooper

Abstract

Multiple preharvest applications of CaCl2 at 1000, 2000, or 4000 ppm (actual Ca) had little effect on fruit firmness of blackberry (Rubus sp.) at harvest. After a 24 hour holding, fruit from the first harvest was firmer if treated with Ca. Preharvest Ca treatments reduced soluble solids accumulation in fruit and 4000 ppm caused foliar damage. Ca had little effect on acidity or color at harvest, but reduced the rate of ripening during postharvest holding.

Free access

R. Keith Striegler, Chris B. Lake, Justin R. Morris, Renee T. Threlfall, Gary L. Main, and Simon G. Graves

'Sunbelt' is a juice grape cultivar developed by the Univ. of Arkansas. This cultivar produces 'Concord'-type juice and is adapted to warm climatic conditions of the southern United States. Preliminary evaluation showed that 'Sunbelt' has potential to produce high-quality juice under the hot climatic conditions of the San Joaquin Valley. A study was conducted during the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons to further evaluate the adaptation of 'Sunbelt' to the San Joaquin Valley and determine the response of this cultivar to selected pruning methods. Vines were grown for two seasons without use of insecticides, fungicides, or herbicides. Vines were subjected to four pruning treatments: severe hand pruning (60-80 nodes retained/vine); moderate hand pruning (120-160 nodes retained/vine); machine pruning with hand follow-up (160-180 nodes retained/vine); and minimal pruning (200-400 nodes retained/vine). Vines were trained to a Geneva Double Curtain trellis system. Yield, components of yield, and juice quality were significantly impacted by pruning treatment. In both seasons, mechanized systems of pruning (machine and minimal) produced higher yield than hand pruning. Minimal pruning resulted in the highest yield (42 t·ha-1) in 1998, while yield from the machine-pruned vines was highest (29 t·ha-1) in 1999. Minimally pruned vines had the highest clusters/vine and lowest cluster weight among the treatments. The extremely high yields obtained for the minimal pruning treatments produced fruit that was less mature resulting in juice with lower soluble solids than the other treatments in 1998. However, in 1999 the juice from minimally pruned vines had the highest soluble solids. Sensory analysis of juice produced in 1999 showed that the juice from the machine-pruned treatment had the least color intensity. Sensory analysis showed that minimal and severe hand pruning were ranked higher for sweetness than machine and moderate hand pruning. In the second year of the study, the juice from the minimal-pruned and severe hand-pruned treatment were preferred over the moderate hand-pruned treatment or the machine-pruned treatment.

Free access

Bruce W. Wood, Morris W. Smith, Ray E. Worley, Peter C. Anderson, Tommy T. Thompson, and L.J. Grauke

Staminate and pistillate flower maturity of 80 cultivars of young (<15 years old) pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees are presented. These patterns show that pollination and receptivity windows within the flowering season can be divided into very early, early, mid, late, and very late season protandrous (Type I) and protogynous (Type II) types. This system therefore provides a seasonally based 30-class Type I and Type II alternative to the standard two-class Type I and Type II system, thus offering enhanced resolution of flowering intervals and an improved means of selecting cultivars to ensure cross-pollination of yard and orchard trees. Scott-Knott cluster analysis of budbreak, nut ripening date, and date of autumn leaf drop segregated cultivars into one of several categories.

Free access

Alyssa H. Cho, Carlene A. Chase, Danielle D. Treadwell, Rosalie L. Koenig, John Bradley Morris, and Jose Pablo Morales-Payan

A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Citra, FL, to evaluate the effects of seeding rate and removal of apical dominance of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) on weed suppression and seed production by sunn hemp. Three seeding rates of sunn hemp were used: a representative seed production rate of 11 kg·ha−1, an intermediate seeding rate of 28 kg·ha−1, and a cover crop seeding rate of 45 kg·ha−1. Cutting the main stem at 3, 4, or 5 weeks after planting to break apical dominance was compared with an uncut treatment. Cutting had no significant effect on shoot biomass, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) penetrating the canopy, and nondestructive leaf area index (LAI). As a result, cutting also had no effect on weed density and biomass in 2008 and very little effect in 2009. Increase in seeding rate resulted in linear decrease in PAR and increase in LAI in both years. Seeding rate had a greater effect on suppression of weed biomass than on suppression of weed density. There was a linear decline in sunn hemp branching with increased seeding rate in 2009 and, averaged across years, flower number decreased linearly with increased seeding rate. Cutting to break apical dominance induced branching but had no effect on flower number. No seed pod production occurred and we postulate that the lack of seed production may be the result of the absence of effective pollinators in fall when short-day varieties of sunn hemp flower in Florida.

Open access

J. R. Morris, S. E. Spayd, J. G. Brooks, and D. L. Cawthon

Abstract

Under commercial conditions at harvest, mechanically harvested blackberries (Rubus sp.) had raw and processed quality comparable to hand-picked fruits regardless of berry temperature. However, during storage, berries machine-harvested at high temperature (36°C) deteriorated more rapidly than hand-picked berries at the same temperature. Storage of machine-harvested fruit in 20% and 40% CO2 at 20° for up to 48 hours maintained raw and processed quality. When mold counts were not excessive, the use of flavoring ingredients in the processed product resulted in acceptable products despite unacceptable raw product quality from some treatments. Use of high CO2 storage atmospheres with fruit held at 20° partially offset the need for refrigeration to reduce postharvest quality loss.

Full access

R.K. Striegler, J.R. Morris, P.M. Carter, J.R. Clark, R.T. Threlfall, and L.R. Howard

A muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) planting was established in 1996 at the Southwest Research and Extension Center in Hope, Ark., to provide information on the performance of muscadine grape cultivars in a region where cold hardiness is not a major limitation. This research evaluated harvest parameters, fruit and juice quality, and nutraceutical potential of selected muscadine cultivars grown in southwestern Arkansas. The cultivars evaluated were `Black Beauty', `Carlos', `Cowart', `Doreen', `Early Fry', `Fry', `Granny Val', `Ison', `Jumbo', `Late Fry', NC67A015-17, NC67A015-26, `Nesbitt', `Scarlett', `Southern Home', `Sterling', `Sugargate', `Summit', `Supreme', and `Tara'. Muscadine cultivars differed in productivity and fruit quality. In 2002 and 2003, juice was produced from `Carlos', `Granny Val', `Ison', `Nesbitt', `Southern Home', `Summit', and `Supreme' grapes. `Black Beauty' was also produced into juice in 2003. In 2002, `Nesbitt' grapes had the highest juice yield, 520 L·t–1 (124.6 gal/ton). `Ison' and `Supreme' juice had the highest soluble solids level. In 2003, `Granny Val' grapes had the highest juice yield, 551 L·t –1 (132.0 gal/ton). `Southern Home' juice had the highest soluble solids. The press materials of muscadine grapes were a potential source of high levels of nutraceutical compounds. Dried seeds had the highest total phenolic and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) levels followed by the dried skins, the grapes, and then the juice. The skins of the black cultivars had the highest total anthocyanins level. `Supreme' seeds had the highest total phenolic and ORAC levels while `Ison' skins had the highest total anthocyanin levels. Based on yield, harvest, and juice quality, cultivars recommended to growers in southwestern Arkansas and other areas with a similar climate include `Black Beauty', `Carlos', `Fry', `Granny Val', `Nesbitt', `Southern Home', `Summit', and `Supreme'.

Open access

J. R. Morris, W. A. Sistrunk, C. A. Sims, G. L. Main, and E. J. Wehunt

Abstract

Two cultivars of strawberries originally harvested for fresh market were held under 5 postharvest storage treatments and then dipped in one of 4 chemical treatments. The berries were sliced or left whole, dipped, and then processed by freezing or thermal processing. The processed product from ‘Cardinal’ was superior to that from ‘Sunrise’ in this study, regardless of the holding or dip treatment. ‘Cardinal’ berries could be utilized for processing initially and after storage for 4 days at 4°C and after 2 days at 21°; however, ‘Sunrise’ was acceptable only initially and up to 4 days at 4°. Dipping berries for 1 min in a 0.5% calcium lactate solution or a 0.5% Ca lactate plus 1% citric acid solution improved berry firmness and character. The Ca dips were more effective in firming sliced berries than in firming whole berries. The Howard mold count of the berries became a major limiting factor for many of the postharvest storage treatments.

Open access

R. C. Forbess, J. R. Morris, T. L. Lavy, R. E. Talbert, and R. R. Flynn

Abstract

Several Arkansas commercial grape growers operating tractor-mounted, low-boom vineyard spray rigs were monitored for potential dermal, respiratory, and internal exposure to paraquat (1-1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium ion) during the 1980 and 1981 growing seasons. Workers followed their usual mixing and spraying routines with as little influence as possible from the test. Analyses by colorimetric methods revealed very low levels of paraquat exposure. Greatest dermal exposure levels averaging 0.015 mg paraquat/kg body weight were detected on persons operating the spray rigs. Respiratory exposure was minimal and there was no paraquat detected in any of the urine samples collected from each worker. Those persons receiving the highest levels of paraquat exposure had measurements which were well below those found to be toxic to laboratory animals. Hazards from using this material by this method of application should be low when used in accordance to label directions and precautions.

Open access

J. R. Morris, G. S. Nelson, A. A. Kattan, and D. L. Cawthon

Abstract

The development of a mechanical harvester for erect blackberries is traced from its inception to commercialization. The harvesting and production system tested in this study required productive, erect cultivars that are mechanically pruned to form continuous hedgerows. An acceptable processed product is obtained from the system.

Open access

J. R. Morris, A. A Kattan, G. S. Nelson, and D. L. Cawthon

Abstract

A completely mechanized system for production, harvesting and handling strawberries (Fragaria × anassa Duch.) for processing is described. Pre-harvest cultural factors, including bed preparation, plant population, harvest date and clonal evaluation and adaptability to mechanical harvesting, were studied for 4 years. ‘Cardinal’, ‘Earlibelle’, and Arkansas breeding line A-5344 were well suited for once-over mechanical harvesting under Arkansas conditions considering yield, quality, and organoleptic evaluation. Plant population densities in the matted row system used in this study generally had little effect on yield or quality, unless a clone was of low vigor and poor runner plant producer. As harvest date was delayed, quality and useable yield often decreased. However, a minimum of a 6 day harvest period for mechanical harvesting existed for the cultivars tested. The results of this study indicate that once-over mechanical harvesting of strawberries is feasible when the proper cultivar is grown on properly shaped beds with good cultural practices and adequate postharvest handling procedures.