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Trinidad Reyes, Terril A. Nell, Charles A. Conover, and James E. Barrett

Effects of three light intensities (564, 306 and 162 μmol m-2 s-1) and three fertilizer rates (220, 440 and 880 mg/15 cm pot, weekly) were evaluated on acclimatization potential of Chamaedorea elegans. Treatments were applied during four months under greenhouse conditions after which plants were placed indoors (20 μmol m-2 s-1, 21±2C and 50% RH) for two months. Light compensation point (LCP) was significantly reduced by decreasing light intensity and increasing fertilizer rates. Leaf and root fresh and dry weights increased with irradiance while shoots were not affected. Chlorophyll a levels were higher in plants grown under the lowest light intensity. Carbohydrate content is being analyzed and anatomical examination of leaves studied. Plant performance indoors will be discussed. These studies demonstrate that Chamaedorea, a monocot, acclimatizes similarly to dicots.

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Richard K. Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, Carolyn A. Bartuska, and Terril Nell

Effects of heat stress on viable and nonviable axillary meristem development and subsequent lateral branching in 'Improved Mefo' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum Ramat. (Kitamura)] were studied. Plants grown at 33 °C day/27 °C night produced more nonviable buds than did plants grown at 23 °C day/18 °C night. A negative linear relationship {y = 28.7 + [-0.66 (x days)], r 2 = 0.70} between timing of exposure to high temperatures and the number of nonviable buds was observed. Histological examination 28 days after exposure to 33 °C/27 °C revealed that plants showed both normal and abnormal bud development. Abnormal bud development occurred as a consequence of premature differentiation of axillary meristematic tissue into nonmeristematic parenchyma tissue immediately after separation of axillary from apical meristems.

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Oswaldo Macz, Ellen T. Paparozzi, Walter W. Stroup, Terril A. Nell, and Ria Leonard

Research on hydroponically grown mums showed that nitrogen (N) levels applied can be reduced when adequate sulfur (S) is also applied. However, changes in stem length, leaf area, and time-to-fl ower can be affected. Our goal was to evaluate whether reduced N levels in combination with S would affect commercial production and post-harvest longevity of pot mums. `White Diamond' was grown in a peat:perlite:vermiculite medium following a commercial production schedule. N levels applied were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/L. S levels were 0, 5, 10, 20, and 80 mg/L. The treatment design was a complete factorial 4 × 5 with 20 treatment combinations. The experimental design was a split-plot with N levels as the whole-plot and S levels as the split-plot factor. Variables measured were plant height, leaf area, days to bud set, days to first color, and days to flower opening. Plants were ship to the Univ. of Florida for postharvest evaluation. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED AND PROC REG. N and S interactions were significant for all variables measured except flower longevity. Plants receiving 0 mg/L S did not produce inflorescences, had shorter stems, and less leaf area regardless of N levels. Plants receiving 50 mg/L N and some S produced inflorescences, but were of inferior quality to plants receiving 100, 150, and 200 mg/L N. Plants receiving 200 mg/L N and 80 mg/L S showed breakdown of plant architecture. Plants of commercial quality were obtained at 100, 150, and 200 mg/L N in combination with either 5, 10, or 20 mg/L S.

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Jane Whittaker, Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett, and Thomas J. Sheehan

The effect of postharvest dips on the longevity of Anthurium andraenum cultivar Nitta and Alpinia purpurata was evaluated. The inflorescences were dipped in a 200 ppm benzyladenine (BA) solution, an antitranspirant, or water for 10 minutes. After dipping, anthuriums were placed directly in water and gingers were placed in either water or a 2% sucrose solution and placed in interior conditions (10 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hr/day, 21±2C). Ginger longevity was increased by 10 days or more by the sucrose solution. The greatest longevity of gingers was obtained when dipped in either BA or the antitranspirant and held in the sucrose solution. Anthurium longevity increased 10 days when dipped in BA, while the other treatments had little effect.

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Terril A. Nell, Ria T. Leonard, Jim E. Barrett, and David G. Clark

Production and postproduction factors were examined to evaluate effects on postproduction performance and longevity of several varieties of potted African violets, carnations, chrysanthemum, cyclamen, gerbera, Hiemalis begonia, hibiscus, hydrangea, kalanchoe, and lisianthus. Various N rates (150–600 ppm) and fertilizer termination 2 to 3 weeks prior to flowering were evaluated. Chrysanthemums, hydrangea, and lisianthus had better quality and longevity at N rates ranging from 200 to 300 ppm, while all other crops performed best at 150 ppm N. Terminating fertilizer had no effect on longevity or quality of carnation, gerbera, Hiemalis begonia, hydrangea, or kalanchoe, while chrysanthemum and cyclamen had a significant increase in longevity when terminated. Lisianthus had an increase in quality and longevity when fertilizer was continued to the end of production. Shipping at the proper bud developmental stage significantly influenced flower opening and longevity in the postharvest environment. Lisianthus and hydrangea need to have at least 75% of the buds fully opened, while carnations, chrysanthemum, cyclamen, and kalanchoe need at least 25% to 50% open. Hiemalis begonia, a very long-lasting potted plant, tolerated a range of 10% to 75% open flowers at shipping. Optimum transport temperature and transport duration varied for each crop. Generally, transporting for 3 days at 2 to 7 °C was best for carnation, chrysanthemum, and gerbera, while transporting at 7 to 12 °C was best for cyclamen, Hiemalis begonia, hydrangea, kalanchoe, and lisianthus. Hibiscus performed best when transported at 18 °C. Longevity and quality were maximized when maintained at 18 to 21 °C at 14 μmol·m–2·s–1. Differences in variety performance was a major factor in postproduction performance.

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Ria T. Leonard, Terril A. Nell, Jim E. Barrett, and David G. Clark

The traditional use of poinsettias has been as potted plants. A new poinsettia variety, `Winter Rose Dark Red', is performing well as a cut flower, lasting 2 to 3 weeks. Various postharvest handling procedures were examined, including stem processing methods at harvest, storage and transit conditions, as well as handling practices at the wholesale, retail, and consumer levels, to determine the best handling practices to maximize quality and longevity. At harvest, traditional latex controlling techniques, such as dipping stems in 95% ethanol for 10 min and burning or boiling stem tips were tested. Stems wilted faster when dipped in ethanol or burned. The woody nature of the stem contains little latex compared to traditional varieties; thus, no latex-controlling methods are needed or beneficial. After harvest, there was no benefit found in hydrating stems in a commercial hydration solution compared to plain water. Transport and/or storage conditions between 10 to 15 °C for 3 to 4 days maximized longevity. Chilling injury occurred when transported at 4 °C. Leaves and bracts wilted when stored dry in a box, but recovered within 12 to 24 h when stored for 2 days. Leaves abscised after exposure to short-term wilting but no bract abscission occurred. Storing stems in a 10% bleach solution prevented wilting and reduced bacterial growth. Bracts were sensitive to mechanical injury during transit, resulting in bruising lesions on the bracts, which increased sensitivity to bract edge burn. Stems declined faster when maintained in a floral preservative compared to water during the consumer phase.

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Ayumi Suzuki, Ria T. Leonard, Terril A. Nell, Jim E. Barrett, and David G. Clark

It has traditionally been recommended to cut flower stems underwater to reduce blockage and improve water uptake, although little scientific information relates this practice to vase life. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the benefit of this processing technique on quality and longevity of several cut flowers species. Stems were either cut dry or cut wet under deionized water with a stainless steel blade and placed into vases containing a commercial floral preservative. Water samples were obtained from the cutting tank over time during stem processing for bacteria counts. Stems were maintained at 2 °C at 10 μmol·m–2·s–1 (12 h/day). The results were variable from shipment to shipment, possibly due to differences in stem quality or cutting water quality. In most cases, cutting underwater had no effect on longevity of alstroemeria, chrysanthemums, gerbera daisy, roses, or snapdragons. However, in a few instances, cutting underwater improved longevity slightly. Cutting stems underwater was consistently effective in increasing longevity 2-4 days for carnations. Bacteria counts in the cutting tank water after 500 stems were processed were 6/34 × 106 propagules/mL and increased to 1.00 × 107 propagules/mL after 1000 stems. The increase in bacteria decreased leaf quality in roses and reduced the number of snapdragon flowers that opened, but did not affect longevity. In gerberas, however, longevity decreased 2 days. A high concentration of bacteria in the cutting water may effect quality and longevity of many cut flower species and may negate any benefit in cutting stems underwater.

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Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, Ana Maria Borda, and Terril A. Nell

Natural variation in the postharvest quality and longevity of ornamental plants can often be related to differences in their response to ethylene. In the present study, we determined the postharvest performance and ethylene sensitivity of cut flowers from 38 cultivated Hybrid Tea rose genotypes. The vase life of the cultivars varied considerably from 4.5 to 18.8 days at 21 °C. There was also substantial variation in the degree of flower opening among genotypes. Exposure to 1 μL·L−1 ethylene for 24 h at 21 °C reduced the longevity of 27 cultivars by 0.8 to 8.4 days (18% to 47%) by accelerating petal wilting and abscission. Ethylene treatment also significantly reduced rates of flower opening in 17 sensitive cultivars and in six cultivars that showed no ethylene-related reduction in vase life. Five cultivars showed no reduction in vase life or flower opening in response to ethylene exposure. Pre-treating stems with 0.2 mm silver thiosulfate liquid or 0.9 μL·L−1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) gas for 16 h at 2 °C reduced the deleterious effects of ethylene. The release of 1-MCP from two sachets containing EthylBloc™ into individual shipping boxes also protected flowers against ethylene applied immediately after a 6-d commercial shipment. The duration of protection afforded by the 1-MCP sachet treatment was greatest when flowers were maintained at low temperature.

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Christopher Ramcharan, Dewayne L. Ingram, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett

Short-term effects of root-zone temperatures (RZT) of 28, 33, 38, and 43C for 6 hours daily on container-grown Musa spp. (AAA) `Grande Naine' and Ixora chinensis L. `Maui' were determined under greenhouse and growth room conditions. Diurnal fluctuation of leaf carbon assimilation (LCA) was altered by treatments. In the growth room at 43C, the maximum LCA occurred about midday for banana, but not until afternoon in ixora. LCA was highest (0.53 mg CO2/m2 per sec) in banana with a 33C RZT under greenhouse conditions, while it was equally high (0.74 mg CO2/m2 per sec) at 33 and 38C in a growth room. In ixora, 33C induced the highest LCA (0.40 mg CO2/m2 per sec) in the greenhouse at 1200 hr, but there were no apparent differences in midday LCA between plants with RZT of 28, 33, and 38C in the growth room. Effects of RZT and environment on the daily fluctuations of gaseous exchange processes raise questions about using measurements at only one time during the day to separate treatment effects.

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Jeff B. Million, James E. Barrett, Terril A. Nell, and David G. Clark

Dendranthema×grandiflorum (Ramat.) were grown in either a peat-based or pine bark—based medium and drenched with growth retardants at a range of concentrations to generate dose : response curves. The effect of ancymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole on stem elongation was less in the pine bark—based than in the peat-based medium. Generally, the concentrations required to achieve the same response were 3- to 4-fold as high in the pine bark—based medium as in the peat-based medium. However, chlormequat was slightly more active in the pine bark—based medium than in the peat-based medium. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α—(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); (±)-(R*,R*)-β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-di methyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pent -l-en-3-ol (uniconazole); 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat).