A wide range of color, sugar, and acid composition was found among 12 peach [Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch] genotypes. Among the high-acid genotypes, a trend of increasing Hunter `a' values, fructose, soluble solids concentration (SSC): titratable acidity (TA) ratio, and decreasing TA and citric acid levels was noted with decreasing mesocarp firmness. Mesocarp firmness was correlated with both skin and flesh `a' values within all genotypes. Among genotypes, the Hunter `a'/firmness relationship varied. `Elberta', a cultivar known to retain a greenish ground color, had a lower Hunter `a' value when soft than did more recent releases such as `Dixiland', `Redhaven', and `Suwanee'. `Sam Houston', a low-acid cultivar, had lower TA and malic, citric, and quinic acid levels than the other cultivars. The dominant acid for all genotypes was malic (50% to 60% of total) with about equal amounts of citric and quinic. Soluble sugars included sucrose (54% of total), fructose (31%), and glucose (15%). `Sam Houston' had lower SSC, a higher percentage of sucrose, lower levels of glucose and fructose, but the same relative sweetness values as the high-acid cultivars.
David H. Byrne, Aleksander N. Nikolic, and Edward E. Burns
Xuan Wu, Shuyin Liang, and David H. Byrne
Criteria to determine the horticultural quality of ornamental plants include plant architecture, flower characteristics, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The architecture of a rose (Rosa sp.) bush is linked to flower yield and ornamental value. The Texas A&M University (TAMU) Rose Breeding and Genetics program has the objective of developing garden rose cultivars that flower heavily and exhibit a compact full shape. To determine which architectural traits are key for the development of this desired shape, five rose seedlings with a desirable compact growth habit and five with an undesirable growth habit were selected from TAMU diploid rose breeding germplasm. This comparison indicated that the key traits for the selection of compact growth habit are the number of primary shoots followed by the number of secondary and tertiary shoots produced.
Zena Rawandoozi, Timothy Hartmann, David Byrne, and Silvia Carpenedo
Ten phenological and fruit quality traits were evaluated in seedlings from nine F1 low to medium chill full-sib peach (Prunus persica) families and their parents over 2 years at two locations (Fowler, CA, and College Station, TX) to estimate variance components, genotype by environment interaction (G×E), and phenotypic correlations using restricted maximum likelihood mixed and multivariate models. The removal of nectarine [P. persica var. nucipersica (fruit without fuzz)] and pantao (flat shape fruit) seedlings from the analysis decreased the heritability for the fruit size, blush, tip, and soluble solids concentration (SSC), indicating the importance of taking the effects of the major gene of nectarine/pantao into account when assessing the heritability of traits. A strong correlation coefficient (r = 0.92) found between ripe date (RD) and fruit development period (FDP) and between fruit weight (FW) and fruit diameter (FD), indicates that either measure is equally effective, although the negative correlation between bloom date (BD) and FDP (r = −0.46) implies earlier blooming during cool temperatures tends to extend FDP. FW, FD, blush, and SSC had moderately weak correlations with RD (r = 0.56, 0.53, −0.41, and 0.48) and FDP (r = 0.57, 0.56, −0.50, and 0.39, respectively), which could be explained either by the presence of a strong link between quantitative trait loci of these traits and the ripening date locus or the pleiotropic effect of ripening date on many quantitative fruit characters. The traits RD, FDP, and titratable acidity (TA) had the highest broad-sense heritability (H2) and lowest G×E. FW, tip, and shape showed the lowest H2, the highest of G×E variance to the genetic F (G×E variance/total genotypic variance), and high G×E, whereas the other traits showed moderate G×E. For the traits that had a higher G×E interaction, selection for or against these traits should be done at the production location. A moderate narrow-sense heritability (h2) was estimated for BD, blush, fruit tip, and shape. FW and FD showed low to moderate h2 while H2 was high, whereas RD, FDP, SSC, and TA showed low h2 and high H2 estimates, indicating important nonadditive effects for these traits.
David Byrne*, Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David Ramming, and W. Okie
Stone fruits contain a range of phenolic compounds and carotenoids which have been implicated in improving human health. The objective of this study was to characterize the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity (AOA) exhibited in peaches and plums. Twenty-two peach varieties and fifty-three plum varieties with different flesh and skin color collected from fields in California, Georgia, and Texas were analyzed for their antioxidant content and AOA. Total phenolics, anthocyanins, carotenoids were analyzed spectrophotometrically. AOA was evaluated by DPPH. Anthocyanin and phenolic contents were higher in red-flesh than in white/yellow-flesh peaches. Carotenoid content was higher in yellow-flesh [2-3 mg β-carotene/100 g fw (fresh weight)] than in white or red-flesh peaches (0.01-1.8 mg β-carotene/100 g fw). AOA was about 2-fold higher in red-flesh varieties than in white/yellow-flesh varieties. Among the peaches, the AOA was well correlated with both phenolic and anthocyanin content. Among the plums, the anthocyanin content increased with the red color intensity. Although the plums varied widely in phenolic content, the red/purple-flesh plums generally had higher phenolic content (400-500 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g fw) than the other plums. Carotenoid content in plums was similar for all varieties (0.2-2 mg β-carotene/100 g fw). AOA was higher in red/purple-flesh varieties; however, it was well correlated only with the phenolic content in light colored flesh plums. These results suggest that red-flesh peach varieties have a greater potential health benefit based on antioxidant content and AOA as compared to the white/yellow-flesh varieties. Although this trend is not clear over all the plum varieties; the red/purple-flesh plums usually have higher antioxidant content and AOA.
Marcia Vizzotto, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, David H. Byrne, David W. Ramming, and W.R. Okie
Nineteen peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] genotypes and 45 plum (Prunus salicina Erhr. and hybrids) genotypes with different flesh and skin color were analyzed for their antioxidant content and activity. Anthocyanin content, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were higher in red-flesh than in light-colored flesh peaches. Carotenoid content was higher in yellow-flesh peaches than in light-colored ones. Red-flesh plums generally had higher anthocyanin and phenolic contents than the other plums but not necessarily greater antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic content had the most consistent and highest correlation with antioxidant activity, indicating that it is more important in determining the antioxidant activity of peaches and plums than are the anthocyanin or carotenoid contents. In general, the wide range of phytochemical content and antioxidant activity found indicates that the genetic variability present can be used to develop cultivars with enhanced health benefits.
Alberto C. O. Pinto, David H. Byrne, and Suzanne M. D. Rogers
SH and MS media, sucrose concentrations (6% and 10%) and types of support (0.25% Gelrite, vermiculite and filter paper bridge) were compared in a factorial experiment to determine the effects on growth of immature embryos from peach cultivar B611505. Embryos were measured at the beginning of the experiment (control) and all treatments were kept in the dark at room temperature, for 40 days. Although gelrite, over all media treatments, increased embryos wet weight by 66%, the embryos were soft and succulent and their dry weight increased only 37%. Vermiculite support, on the other hand, increased wet and dry weights by 63% and 79%, respectively. Less embryo growth occurred with MS medium and filter paper bridge. Except for vermiculite and SH medium, 10% sucrose was more effective than 6% in increasing embryo growth.
Valdomiro A.B. de Souza, David H. Byrne, and Jeremy F. Taylor
Heritability estimates are useful to predict genetic progress among offspring when the parents are selected on their performance, but they also provide information about major changes in the amount and nature of genetic variability through generations. Genetic and phenotypic correlations, on the other hand, are useful for better planning of selection programs. In this research, seedlings of 39 families resulting from crosses among 27 peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars and selections were evaluated for date of full bloom (DFB), date of ripening (DR), fruit period development (FDP), flower density (FD), node density (ND), fruit density (FRD), fruit weight (WT), soluble solids content (SS), apical protuberance (TIP), red skin color (BLUSH), and shape (SH) in 1993 and 1994. The data were analyzed using the mixed linear model. The best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was used to estimate fixed effects and predict breeding values (BV). Restricted maximum likelihood (REML) was used to estimate variance components, and a multiple-trait model to estimate genetic and phenotypic covariances between traits. The data indicates high heritability for DFB, DR, FDP, and BLUSH, intermediate heritability for WT, TIP, and SH, and low heritability for FD, ND, FRD, and SS. They also indicate year effect as a major environmental component affecting seedling performance. High correlation estimates were found between some traits, but further analysis is needed to determine their significance.
Alberto C.Q. Pinto, Suzanne M. Dethier Rogers, and David H. Byrne
The influence of medium formulation, methods of ovule support, and ovule perforation on in vitro growth of immature peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] embryos (4.0 to 8.7 mm long) was investigated. Maximum embryo dry weights were attained with vermiculite support, ovule perforation, and 10% sucrose in the medium. At high sucrose levels, all three tested media (Monnier, modified Murashige and Skoog, or modified Stewart and Hsu medium) performed similarly. Adding IAA and kinetin to culture media did not enhance embryo growth. Using the vermiculite support system, small embryos of early maturing peach cultivars, obtained at fruit maturity, were cultured successfully and used as maternal parents in breeding programs. Chemical name used: indole acetic acid (IAA).
A. Millie Burrell, R. Daniel Lineberger, Keerti S. Rathore, and David H. Byrne
Fifteen genetically diverse roses were evaluated for the ability to undergo somatic embryogenesis. Over the two media (MS and B5), two sugars (glucose and sucrose), and two explants (filaments and petiole) used, 20 to 30% of the `Tournament of Roses' callus was embryogenic whereas only crystalline callus was produced in cultures of `Baby Love', `Ingrid Bergman', `Perfume Delight', `Prominent', `Sunflare', and 90-202. Cultures of `Tournament of Roses' consistently produced somatic embryos whereas `Baby Love' produced no embryos. An F1 progeny of `Tournament of Roses' × `Baby Love' was chosen to test whether the ability to undergo embryogenesis in Rosa hybrida L. is heritable. Data collected from tests on F1 progeny between these genotypes suggest that the ability to undergo embryogenesis is indeed heritable in an additive fashion.
David J. Norman, Qi Huang, Jeanne M.F. Yuen, Arianna Mangravita-Novo, and Drew Byrne
Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums, including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented, were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a race 1, biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originated from Costa Rica, and a race 3, biovar 2 (R3B2) strain UW551 isolated from geranium imported from Kenya. These three strains represent populations of R. solanacearum found in the United States or imported with infected plant propagative material. A genomic comparison of the geranium cultivars was also done using amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Both R1B1 strains were more virulent than the R3B2 strain, producing wilt symptoms on most cultivars of zonal, regal, and ivy types. Variation in susceptibility of geranium cultivars to the two R1B1 strains was observed. The R3B2 strain UW551 had a much more restricted host range and was not able to infect most regal geranium cultivars when applied as a soil drench. Many of the scented cultivars were found to be resistant to all three strains of R. solanacearum when tested using the drench inoculation method. However, most scented cultivars were found to be susceptible when plants were wound-inoculated. The greatest variation in type of resistance was observed between the scented geranium cultivars and specific strains of R. solanacearum.