Search Results

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 69 items for

  • Author or Editor: G. Lopez x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All Modify Search
Full access

Kellie J. Walters, Allison A. Hurt, and Roberto G. Lopez

Foliage annuals are primarily grown for the aesthetic appeal of their brightly colored, variegated, or patterned leaves rather than for their flowers. Once foliage annuals become reproductive, vegetative growth of many species diminishes or completely ceases and plants can become unappealing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify how growth and development during production and stock plant cutting yield of bloodleaf (Iresine herbstii), Joseph’s coat (Alternanthera sp.) ‘Brazilian Red Hots’ and ‘Red Threads’, Persian shield (Strobilanthes dyerianus), and variegated potato vine (Solanum jasminoides) are influenced by photoperiod and night interruption (NI) lighting with or without far-red (FR) radiation. Photoperiods consisted of a 9-hour short day (SD) or a 9-hour SD extended to 10, 12, 13, 14, or 16 hours with red (R):white (W):FR light-emitting diode (LED) lamps (R:FR = 0.8) providing a total photon flux density (TPFD) of ≈2 µmol·m−2·s–1 of radiation. In addition, two treatments consisted of a 9-hour SD with a 4-hour NI from lamps containing the same R:W:FR or R:W LEDs (R:FR = 37.4). Bloodleaf plant and Joseph’s coat ‘Brazilian Red Hots’ and ‘Red Threads’ developed inflorescences or flowers under photoperiods ≤12 to 13 hours and were classified as obligate SD plants. Under LEDs providing R:W:FR radiation, stem elongation of reproductive bloodleaf and Joseph’s coat ‘Brazilian Red Hots’ and ‘Red Threads’ increased as photoperiod increased from 9 to 12 hours. In addition, stem elongation of bloodleaf, Joseph’s coat ‘Brazilian Red Hots’ and ‘Red Threads’, and Persian shield and growth index (GI = {plant height + [(diameter 1 + diameter 2)/2]}/2) of bloodleaf and Persian shield was significantly greater under NI with FR radiation than without FR radiation. Fewer or no cuttings were harvested from Joseph’s coat ‘Brazilian Red Hots’ and ‘Red Threads’ under photoperiods ≤12 or ≤13 hours, respectively. To prevent unwanted flowering of bloodleaf plant and Joseph’s coat, a photoperiod ≥14 hours or 4-hour NI must be maintained with LEDs providing either R:W or R:W:FR radiation, however; stem elongation is significantly reduced under R:W LEDs.

Free access

Christopher J. Currey, Veronica A. Hutchinson, and Roberto G. Lopez

Cuttings of herbaceous annual bedding plants must be rooted in late winter and early spring when ambient outdoor photosynthetic daily light integrals (DLIs) are at seasonally low levels. We evaluated the effect of DLI during root development on growth, morphology, and quality of nine popular vegetatively propagated annual bedding plant species. Cuttings of Angelonia angustifolia Benth. ‘AngelMist White Cloud’, Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip. ‘Madeira Cherry Red’, Diascia barberae Hook. f. ‘Wink Coral’, Lantana camara L. ‘Lucky Gold’, Nemesia fruticans (Thunb.) Benth. ‘Aromatica Royal’, Osteospermum ecklonis (DC.) Norl. ‘Voltage Yellow’, Scaevola L. hybrid ‘Blue Print’, Sutera cordata Roth. ‘Abunda Giant White’, and Verbena Ruiz ×hybrida ‘Aztec Violet’ were harvested and propagated in a glass-glazed greenhouse with 23 °C air and substrate temperature set points. After callusing (≈5 mol·m−2·d−1 for 7 days), cuttings of each species were placed under one of three different fixed-woven shade cloths providing ≈38%, 61%, or 86% shade or no shade with 16 h of supplemental light for 14 days. There were no clear trends across species for stem length in response to DLI. Stem caliper of Argyranthemum, Diascia, and Nemesia increased by 35%, 119%, and 89%, respectively, as DLI increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Depending on species, total, shoot, and root dry mass increased by 64% to 465%, 50% to 384%, and 156% to 1137%, respectively, as DLI increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. The quality index, an objective, integrated, and quantitative measurement of rooted cutting quality, increased for all species by 176% to 858% as DLI increased from 1.2 to 12.3 mol·m−2·d−1. Our results indicate that providing a DLI of ≈8 to 12 mol·m−2·d−1 after callusing increases both growth and quality of rooted cuttings.

Free access

Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

High-quality young plant production in northern latitudes requires supplemental lighting (SL) to achieve a recommended daily light integral (DLI) of 10 to 12 mol·m−2·d−1. High-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps have been the industry standard for providing SL in greenhouses. However, high-intensity light-emitting diode (LED) fixtures providing blue, white, red, and/or far-red radiation have recently emerged as a possible alternative to HPS lamps for greenhouse SL. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to 1) quantify the morphology and nutrient concentration of common and specialty bedding plant seedlings grown under no SL, or SL from HPS lamps or LED fixtures; and 2) determine whether SL source during propagation or finishing influences finished plant quality or flowering. The experiment was conducted at a commercial greenhouse in West Lafayette, IN. Seeds of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens hawkeri ‘Divine Blue Pearl’), French marigold (Tagetes patula ‘Bonanza Deep Orange’), gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii ‘Terracotta’), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida ‘Single Dreams White’), ornamental millet (Pennisetum glaucum ‘Jester’), pepper (Capsicum annuum ‘Hot Long Red Thin Cayenne’), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans ‘Zahara Fire’) were sown in 128-cell trays. On germination, trays were placed in a double-poly greenhouse under a 16-hour photoperiod of ambient solar radiation and photoperiodic lighting from compact fluorescent lamps providing a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 2 µmol·m−2·s−1 (ambient conditions) or SL from either HPS lamps or LED fixtures providing a PPFD of 70 µmol·m−2·s−1. After propagation, seedlings were transplanted and finished under SL provided by the same HPS lamps or LED fixtures in a separate greenhouse environment. Overall, seedlings produced under SL were of greater quality [larger stem caliper, increased number of nodes, lower leaf area ratio (LAR), and greater dry mass accumulation] than those produced under no SL. However, seedlings produced under HPS or LED SL were comparable in quality. Although nutrient concentrations were greatest under ambient conditions, select macro- and micronutrient concentrations also were greater under HPS compared with LED SL. SL source during propagation and finishing had little effect on flowering and finished plant quality. Although these results indicate little difference in plant quality based on SL source, they further confirm the benefits gained from using SL for bedding plant production. In addition, with both SL sources producing a similar finished product, growers can prioritize other factors related to SL installations such as energy savings, fixture price, and fixture lifespan.

Free access

Michael A. Ortiz, Krystyna Hyrczyk, and Roberto G. Lopez

The U.S. specialty cut flower market has grown over the last several years because stems of many specialty cut flower species cannot be transported long distances and therefore need to be grown regionally. High tunnel production of cut flowers is an alternative to field and greenhouse production that has several benefits. Specialty cut flower species Antirrhinum majus L. ‘Potomac Orange’ and ‘Rocket Red’, Celosia argentea L. var. cristata Kuntze ‘Chief Red’, Dahlia ×hybrida Cav. ‘Karma Thalia Dark Fuchsia’, Dianthus barbatus L. ‘Amazon Neon Cherry’, Eustoma russellianum Salisb. ‘Mariachi Blue’, Helianthus annuus L. ‘Premier Lemon’ and ‘Sunrich Yellow’, Matthiola incana (L.) W.T. Aiton ‘Katz Lavender Blue’, and Zinnia elegans Jacq. ‘Benary Giant Scarlet’ were grown in both field and high tunnel environments in the midwestern United States. High tunnel production resulted in a first week’s harvest of 44.8 (46%), 115, and 21.1 (110%) more stems for Antirrhinum ‘Rocket Red’, Dianthus, and Zinnia, respectively. Compared with field production, high tunnel production yielded a greater number of stems/m2 for Antirrhinum ‘Potomac Orange’, Celosia, Dianthus, and Zinnia and longer stems for Antirrhinum ‘Potomac Orange’ and ‘Rocket’, Eustoma, Matthiola, and Zinnia. For example, high tunnel production yielded 185 (39%) and 192 (59%) more stems/m2 and 12.6 (34%) and 8.9 (32%) cm longer stems for Mathiola and Zinnia, respectively. Other stem characteristics such as inflorescence length and flower width showed more variation among cultivars. Our results indicate that cut flower yield and/or quality of Antirrhinum ‘Rocket Red’, Dianthus, Matthiola, Zinnia, Dahlia, Eustoma, and Helianthus ‘Sunrich Yellow’ and ‘Premier Lemon’ significantly increases when produced in high tunnels located in the Midwest.

Full access

Ariana P. Torres, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Roberto G. Lopez

Well-established protocols exist for using the pour-through extraction method to estimate substrate pH and electrical conductivity (EC) values for small root volumes. However, little work has been done to test the accuracy and consistency of these measurements in large containers. Our objective was to determine if the amount of distilled water applied to #1, #3, #5, and #10 (2-, 8-, 11-, and 27-L media volume, respectively) containers would affect leachate pH and EC values or consistency of measurements. Boxwood (Buxus ×koreana ‘Green Velvet’) was selected for this study because it is a common container-grown nursery crop. Distilled water was poured evenly over the media surface in each container 1 h after irrigation to obtain a leachate volume of either 50 mL or 2.5% of media volume and leachate EC and pH were measured. Media pH values were 0.1 to 0.3 points higher when 50 mL leachate was collected, but the difference was only significant during the first 2 weeks of measurements. There were no consistent differences in pH over container sizes or leachate volume. Leachate EC values were similar when measured in leachate collected as 50 mL total volume or 2.5% of media volume in 8- and 11-L containers. However, in 27-L containers, obtaining 50 mL leachate resulted in higher EC values than when 2.5% media volume was obtained. Both pH and EC values obtained from 50-mL leachate fractions over container sizes were more consistent than when 2.5% of the media volume was collected. Growers should collect 50 mL of leachate to test media pH and EC regardless of container size.

Free access

Diane M. Camberato, James J. Camberato, and Roberto G. Lopez

Four complete water-soluble fertilizer (WSF) formulations including micronutrients applied at 200 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N) at each irrigation [Peters Excel (21N–2.2P–16.5K), Daniels (10N–1.8P–2.5K), Peters Professional (15N–1.3P–20.8K), and Jack’s Professional (20N–1.3P–15.7K)] were compared with two controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) products (also containing micronutrients) substrate incorporated at transplant at a rate of 3000 g·m−3 of substrate [Osmocote Plus (15N–4P–9.9K, 90 to 120 days longevity at 21 °C) and Osmocote Bloom (12N–3.1P–15K, 60 to 90 days longevity at 21 °C)] in the greenhouse production of four commonly produced bedding plant species with high alkalinity irrigation water (pH 7.1, 280 mg·L−1 CaCO3 equivalent). Species included Argyranthemum frutescens (L.) Sch. Bip. ‘Madeira Cherry Red’ and iron-inefficient Calibrachoa Cerv. hybrid ‘Cabaret Pink Hot’, Diascia barberae Hook. f. ‘Wink Coral’, and Sutera cordata Roth ‘Abunda Giant White’. Additional treatments included a combination of 100 mg·L−1 Excel and 2100 g·m−3 Osmocote Plus and an Osmocote Plus treatment irrigated with reduced alkalinity water (acidified to pH 6.3, 92 mg·L−1 CaCO3 equivalent). Bedding plants were evaluated at the end of a finish or market stage (3 or 5 weeks depending on species) for shoot dry mass (SDM) and root dry mass (RDM), tissue nutrient concentrations, and visual quality rating (0 to 4). At 3 weeks, there were no significant differences in SDM and RDM between fertilizer treatments for any of the four species. Shoot dry mass significantly increased at 5 weeks in the WSF and combination treatments over the three CRF only treatments for Argyranthemum and over the non-acidified Osmocote Plus treatment only for Calibrachoa. At finish, 3 weeks for Sutera and Diascia and 5 weeks for Argyranthemum and Calibrachoa, visual quality rating for all species was lowest when using Osmocote Plus with or without acidified irrigation water compared with the WSF treatments, except the Daniels treatment in Argyranthemum, which also resulted in a low visual quality rating. Leaf tissue N for all species and phosphorus (P) for all except Diascia were below the recommended range for bedding plant crops in the CRF treatments, which was reflected by the lower substrate electrical conductivity (EC) for the CRF alone and combination treatments. Leaf tissue N and P were related to visual quality rating for all species, leaf tissue potassium (K) for Argyranthemum and Calibrachoa only, and leaf tissue iron (Fe) for Diascia only.

Free access

A. Michel-Rosales, J. Farias, S. Guzman, G. Lopez, and G. Valdovinos

In western Mexico, banana is traditionally multiplied by vegetative reproduction in the orchard; recently, micropropagation of this species has increased considerably. Banana has been shown to give a positive response to AM fungal inoculation. However, the selection of efficient AM fungi species, currently propagated in vitro, has not been documented. The selection of the most-effective arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for growth enhancement of banana vitroplants is the first step toward development of an AM inoculation system. This work reports the effect of nursery inoculation of Glomus aggregatum, G. clarum, G. etunicatum, G. intraradices, G. monosporum, G. mosseae, and Gigaspora margarita on the banana vitroplants growth. Pots (4 kg) containing a mixture of soil and coconut fiber (1:1) sterilized with methyl bromide were used. Treatments were arranged under a fully randomized experimental design with eight replications. The plants were harvested 120 days after inoculation and plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight of roots, mycorrhizal colonization, and intensity of infection were measured. Glomus etunicatum, G. monosporum, G. mosseae, and G. aggregatum were shown to be the most-effective endophytes. Plant height was increased, as well as the production of banana roots in response to mycorrhizal inoculation with these fungi. On the other hand, G. intraradices and G. clarum showed low levels of colonization. The data clearly show the most efficient AM fungi for future inoculation studies in nursery banana production.

Free access

J. Farías-Larios, J.G. López-Aguirre, J.L. Miranda, and L.A. Bayardo-Vizcaino

Acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) is a small, red fruit that is native to the West Indies, but is also grown in South and Central America. In western Mexico, this crop is very important because acerola is the richest known natural source of vitamin C, with a content of 1000 to 4500 mg/100 g of fruit. In nursery and field conditions, acerola growth is severely affected by root-knot nematode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial formulations of Bacillus spp. on root-knot nematode management. This study was carried out in the Farm Santa Clara Maria in Colima State. Acerola plants, 60 days old were used. They were grown in 3-L pots with soil, compost, and pumice stone mixture as substrate. Treatments evaluated were: 5, 10, 15 and 30 mL/pot of Activate 2001, Tri-Mat (5 mL/pot) and control, without application. Activate 2001® is a concentrated liquid in water suspension of Bacillus chitinosporus, B. laterosporus, and B. licheniformis. Initial nematode population was of 3,305 in 50 g of roots. Acerola plants were harvested at 30, 60, and 90 days after application. Results show that Activate 2001 at 10 and 30 mL rates reduce significantly root-knot populations in acerola plants 60 days after application with 135 and 178 nematodes/50 g of roots, respectively. Diameter stem, shoot fresh and dry weight and root production were also increased by rhizobacteria application. These results are promising and confirmed the potential of Bacillus as a biological agent for nematode management.

Free access

Victor Medina-Urrutia, Karla Fabiola, Lopez Madera, Patricia Serrano, G. Ananthakrishnan, Jude W. Grosser, and Wenwu Guo

No presently available rootstock combines all the available rootstock attributes necessary for efficient long-term citriculture (production and harvesting) of Mexican limes and other commercially important scions. In the present study, somatic hybridization techniques were used to combine the widely adapted Amblycarpa mandarin (also known as Nasnaran mandarin) with six different trifoliate/trifoliate hybrid selections: Benton, Carrizo, and C-35 citranges; Flying Dragon and Rubidoux trifoliate oranges; and a somatic hybrid of sour orange + Flying Dragon. The ultimate goal of this research is to generate polyploid somatic hybrids that express the complementary horticultural and disease resistance attributes of the corresponding parents, and have direct potential as improved tree-size controlling rootstocks. Somatic hybrids from all six parental combinations were confirmed by a combination of leaf morphology, flow cytometry, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) (for nuclear hybridity) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analyses (for mtDNA and cpDNA). This is the first report of citrus somatic hybridization using Amblycarpa mandarin. Unexpected hexaploid somatic hybrid plants were recovered from the fusion of Amblycarpa mandarin + C-35 citrange. Hexaploid hybrids should be very dwarfing and may have potential for producing potted ornamental citrus. Resulting somatic hybrid plants from all six combinations have been propagated by tissue culture and/or rooted cuttings and are being prepared for commercial field evaluation for their potential as improved rootstocks for Mexican lime and other important scions.

Free access

J. Farias Larios, J. G. López Aguirre, E. Rincón Cruz, and F. Radillo Juarez

Since 1980, farmers from western Mexico have cultivated melon cantaloupe; however, during the past few years, they have seen the better advantages of honeydew melon. Some of them represent a good alternative to farmers because chemical products and labor costs are reduced, and because they are tolerant to several diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate 15 new hybrids of honeydew melon in western Mexico. The hybrids evaluated were: Dey Break, Hmx 4596, Hmx 4595, Hmx 4607, Sunex 7051, Rocio, creme de menthe, Silver world, Emerald sweet, Sme 5303, Sme 5302, Santa Fé, PSR 10994, and PSR 8994, Honey Brew was test. Fifteen -day-old plants were transplanted by hand. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete-block design. Beds 1.2 m wide and 7.0 m long were prepared, 1.5 m between beds, distance plant-plant 0.5 m (plant density ≈13,332 plant/ha). Results show that yield of SME 5302, SME 5303, HMX 4596, Rocío, Dey Break, PSR 8994, Sunex 7051, and HMX 4607 had a yield higher of 50 t/ha, Emerad sweet had more number fruit (59 per 10 plants), whereas SME 5303, SME 5302 and Silver world had higher fruit weight (>1.719 gr). We suggest the evaluation of these hybrids in other regions to know the adaptation to different conditions and to select the best in commercial quality and production.