Freezing tolerance and the lethal freezing temperature were determined for detached leaves of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) by either electrolyte leakage or visual appearance of browning. Leaves from field-grown trees of `Gainesville', `Booth8', and `Winter Mexican' in both Gainesville and Homestead, Fla., were evaluated. All cultivars in both locations survived ice formation in their tissue. Leaf tissue had a temperature limit (lethal freeze temperature) at and below which the tissue died. The lethal freezing temperature varied from -5.1 to -9.3C, depending on time of year and location. The lethal freeze temperature for a cultivar decreased over the fall and winter as temperatures decreased. Leaves of `Booth-8' and Winter Mexican' decreased 2.5 and 1.5C, respectively, in Homestead from 13 Nov. 1982 to 5 Feb. 1983. The plants growing at the lower temperature location (Gainesville) had lower lethal freeze temperatures. Leaves of `Gainesville' had a lethal freeze temperature of - 9.3C from trees at Gainesville and - 7.8C from trees at Homestead.
M.A. McKellar, D.W. Buchanan, Dewayne L. Ingram, and C.W. Campbell
Christopher Ramcharan, Dewayne L. Ingram, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Short-term effects of root-zone temperatures (RZT) of 28, 33, 38, and 43C for 6 hours daily on container-grown Musa spp. (AAA) `Grande Naine' and Ixora chinensis L. `Maui' were determined under greenhouse and growth room conditions. Diurnal fluctuation of leaf carbon assimilation (LCA) was altered by treatments. In the growth room at 43C, the maximum LCA occurred about midday for banana, but not until afternoon in ixora. LCA was highest (0.53 mg CO2/m2 per sec) in banana with a 33C RZT under greenhouse conditions, while it was equally high (0.74 mg CO2/m2 per sec) at 33 and 38C in a growth room. In ixora, 33C induced the highest LCA (0.40 mg CO2/m2 per sec) in the greenhouse at 1200 hr, but there were no apparent differences in midday LCA between plants with RZT of 28, 33, and 38C in the growth room. Effects of RZT and environment on the daily fluctuations of gaseous exchange processes raise questions about using measurements at only one time during the day to separate treatment effects.
Joshua Knight, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Charles R. Hall
The understanding, calculation, and comparison of water footprint (WF) among specialty crop growers are confounded by geography, species, and process. This study builds on published models of representative plant production systems developed using life cycle assessment. These models include container production using recycled water in the mid-Atlantic, southeastern, and Pacific northwestern regions of the United States and greenhouse production implementing rainfall capture and overhead and ebb/flood irrigation strategies. Production systems using recycled water compare favorably in consumptive water use (CWU) with those that do not, regardless of the water source. Production systems in geographic locations with high water availability compare favorably with production systems in locations with high water scarcity in WF, but not necessarily CWU.