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Open access

Craig K. Chandler, Arlen D. Draper, and Gene J. Galletta

Abstract

Five blueberry interspecific hybrids (3 tetraploids, 1 pentaploid, and 1 hexaploid) and 2 highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L., 2n = 4x = 48) blueberry clones were crossed in all combinations. Seeds per pollination and seed germination were the criteria used to measure the success of these crosses. The tetraploid interspecific hybrids were fully cross-fertile with the highbush clones and with each other. The pentaploid and hexaploid interspecific hybrids were only partially cross-fertile with the highbush clones and with the tetraploid interspecific hybrids; nonetheless, they still produced an adequate amount of viable seed in most combinations. Significant reciprocal differences in crossability were detected for 4 of the 5 species hybrids.

Open access

Craig K. Chandler, Diane Doud Miller, and David C. Ferree

Abstract

Experiments were conducted to examine strawberry (Fragaria × anannassa Duchesne) plant renovation practices, singly and in combination, for effects on vegetative growth of greenhouse-grown, potted strawberry plants. The major results of these experiments were as follows: a) most of the plants that were both defoliated and root-pruned after fruit harvest died; b) there was a negative linear relationship between the number of leaves removed and the number of new leaves and runners produced; c) root, leaf, and total plant dry weights were negatively correlated with the severity of root pruning; and d) soil addition after fruit harvest decreased the shoot : root ratio of multiple-crown plants, but had no effect on single-crown plants.

Free access

A. Raymond Miller, Joseph C. Scheereus, Patricia S. Erb, and Craig K. Chandler

A tissue culture protocol was developed that increased the germination percentage and decreased the lag time to germination for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) achenes. This technique involved cutting surface-sterilized achenes across the embryo axis then placing the shoot apex/radicle-containing sections on semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium lacking hormones. Cut achenes began germinating 5 days after culture and achieved maximum germination (97% to 100%) in less than 2 weeks, compared to whole achenes, which began to germinate 7 to 10 days after sowing and required more than 7 weeks for maximum germination (<50%). Enhanced germination of cut achenes was a general phenomenon since achenes from 231 hybrid crosses responded similarly. Following placement on culture medium, cut achenes could be stored up to 8 weeks at 4C then removed to 27C, where germination and seedling development occurred at percentages and rates comparable to freshly cut achenes. Achenes did not require stratification before cutting to exhibit increased germination. Nearly 100% of the achenes from freshly harvested red-ripe, pink and white strawberries germinated after cutting and culture, although cut achenes from white and pink berries germinated more slowly than those from red-ripe berries. Achenes from green berries, whether whole or cut, did not germinate. This method of “embryo rescue” could be used to generate more seedlings from poorly germinating hybrid crosses, would considerably decrease the time from sowing to seedling production compared to traditional means, and would produce seedlings of uniform age for subsequent field evaluation.

Free access

Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims

Free access

Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Bielinski M. Santos, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims