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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Teresa E. Seijo, Natalia A. Peres, and Zhanao Deng

Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (Xad), is the most common foliar disease of caladium, an ornamental aroid grown for its colorful foliage. The disease can reduce the marketability of caladiums produced as potted plants and lower the yield of caladiums grown for tuber production. Three bacterial strains were isolated from symptomatic caladiums and identified as Xad using fatty acid analysis, carbon source use, and the sequence of the 16S-23S spacer, and tested for virulence against three susceptible cultivars. Two strains were virulent to all of the cultivars; however, one strain was differentially pathogenic, virulent against two cultivars, but not to the usually highly susceptible ‘Candidum’. In greenhouse inoculation tests of 17 cultivars and one breeding line, four cultivars were ranked as highly susceptible, nine as moderately susceptible, and five as resistant. Ten of these cultivars were also evaluated with natural infection in the field with good agreement between the results of the greenhouse and field evaluations. Cultivars White Queen, Florida Red Ruffles, Florida Sweetheart, Candidum Jr., and Mrs. Arno Nehrling have been identified as resistant to bacterial blight in greenhouse or field evaluations and can potentially be used in future breeding efforts to produce improved cultivars.

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

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Richard O. Kelly, Zhanao Deng, and Brent K. Harbaugh

Florida is one of the top wholesale producers of bedding plants, and in 2003 was ranked fourth in the United States in annual bedding plant production and fifth in potted pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana) and viola (V. cornuta) production. Evaluation of viola cultivars is vital for continued growth of the industry. We evaluated 66 viola cultivars in replicated class tests at the University of Florida's Gulf Coast Research and Education Center at Bradenton from 2000-04 and determined the best-of-class for use in future trials to compare against new entries in the same class. In this report, we provide objective plant measurements of vegetative and floral characteristics as well as subjective performance ratings. Viola cultivars were grouped into classes based on growth habit (standard vs. creeping), flower color, and flower color pattern, and the best cultivar in each class was determined. Cultivars with an outstanding overall performance rating (combined foliage, flower, arthropod feeding symptom, and disease symptom ratings ≥5.5 out of a 7 high scale) for best-of-class selections were: (standard black class) `Sorbet Black Delight'; (standard cream class) `Velour Cream Splash'; (standard mix class) `Babyface Mixture'; (standard orange with purple, red-violet cap class) `Penny Orange Jump-Up'; [standard purple (dark), blue-violet with dark eye and light cap class] `Angel Violet Blotch'; (standard white class) `Penny White'; [standard white face with purple (dark), red-violet cap class] `Skippy White With Violet Wing'; (standard yellow class) `Jewel Lemon Yellow'; (standard yellow with blotch class) `Babyface Yellow'; [standard yellow/white face with purple (dark), blue-violet cap class] `Penny Classic Jump-Up'. Solitary cultivar entries (without comparison) with outstanding performance were: `Angel Frosted Yellow Blotch', `Angel Violet Duet', `Babyface White', `Eryln Purple Yellow', `Four Seasons Yellow With Pink Wing', `Gem Antique Apricot', `Gem Antique Pink', `Gem Antique Lavender', `Hobbit Bilbo Baggins', `Jewel Deep Blue', `Penny Azure Twilight', `Penny Beaconsfield', `Penny Cream', `Penny Orange', `Penny Orchid Frost', `Penny Purple', `Penny Yellow Jump-Up', `Princess Lavender and Yellow', `Princess Purple and Gold', `Rebel Yellow', `Sorbet Coconut Swirl', `Sorbet Icy Blue', `Sorbet Lemon Swirl', `Sparkler Purple Orange Face', and `Sparkler Purple Wing'. These cultivars would likely perform well in the southern U.S. or areas of the world with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.

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Richard O. Kelly, Zhanao Deng, and Brent K. Harbaugh

Central Florida has a climate similar to many locations in the southeastern United States and parts of Asia, Europe, and Australia. Thus, Florida is an important testing ground for new bedding plant cultivars not only in the United States, but around the world. The authors evaluated 125 petunia (Petunia ×hybrida) cultivars in replicated class tests at Bradenton, Fla. (lat. 27º4′N, long. 82º5′W) in 2000–04 and at Balm, Fla. (lat. 27º8′N, long. 82º2′W) in 2005–06. In this report they establish petunia classes and cultivar standards for each class, and provide objective plant measurements of vegetative and floral characteristics, and subjective performance ratings. Petunia cultivars were grouped into 73 classes based on the distinguishing characteristics for petunia, which are plant type and height, and flower type, color, and color pattern. Comparisons were made within each class to determine performance and to select a cultivar as the standard for the class—a plant with the highest overall performance rating that can represent the class in future trials against new cultivars. During the initial trials, larger numbers of cultivars were evaluated and eliminated from future comparisons when each class standard was selected. Many flower colors and color combinations, as well as plant types and other distinctive characteristics have been developed for bedding plants. By creating class standards for each distinctive characteristic, better choices over a wider range of classes are available to growers and landscapers in this climate. Cultivars with an outstanding overall performance rating (combined foliage, flower, arthropod feeding symptom, and disease symptom ratings ≥5.5 points on a 1 to 7-point scale) for class standard selections were (floribunda, single mix class) ‘Madness Waterfall Mix’ and [single purple (dark), red-violet class] ‘Madness Magenta’; [grandiflora, single blue (dark) class] ‘Eagle Blue’, (single orange shades/tints class) ‘Ultra Salmon’, and [single purple (dark), red-violet class] ‘Storm Violet’; and [spreading, normal, orange (dark) shades/tints class] ‘Ramblin’ Salmon Capri’, [orange (light) shades/tints class] ‘Ramblin’ Peach Glo’, [pink (dark) class] ‘Wave Pink’, [purple (dark), blue-violet class] ‘Avalanche Lavender’, [purple (light) blue-violet class] ‘Ramblin’ Lavender’, (red class) ‘Avalanche Red Improved’, (rose class) ‘Avalanche Rose Improved’, (white class) ‘Plush White’, and [spreading, tall; blue (dark) class] ‘Wave Blue’. These cultivars would likely perform well in the southern United States or areas of the world with similar heat and cold hardiness zones.