Plant height, flower diameter, days to flower, and longevity of `Iridon' chrysanthemums [Dendranthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were not affected by various N and K concentrations (112, 225, 337, and 450 mg·liter-1) supplied during the last 5 weeks of production. However, increasing N concentration increased medium conductance, while varying K concentration had no effect on conductance. Visual grade of `Iridon' after 3 weeks in a simulated interior environment showed an interaction between concentrations of N and K. In a second study, growth and longevity of `Iridon' were affected by NH4: NO3 ratios. Plants receiving a 0:1.0 ratio flowered 4 days later than plants receiving a 0.5:0.5 ratio and were taller than plants fertilized with a 1.0:0 ratio. Longevity was greater in plants receiving a 0:1.0 ratio than in those receiving 0.5:0.5 or 0.75:0.25 ratios. Also, longevity was similar in plants receiving NH4: NO3 ratios of 0:1.0, 0.1:0.9, 0.2:0.8, and 0.3:0.7. Plants receiving 0:1.0 lasted 6 days longer than those receiving a 0.4:0.6 ratio.
Nadia Roude, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
William J. Foster, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Terril A. Nell
Rooted stem cuttings of Ilex crenata Thunb. `Rotundifolia' were grown in a controlled-environment growth chamber. Root-zone temperatures were controlled with an electric system. Shoot carbon exchange and root respiration rates were determined in response to root-zone temperatures of 28, 32, 36, and 40C for 6 hour·day–1 for 7 days. Photosynthesis was decreased by root zones ≥ 32C, while root respiration increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Decreased photosynthetic rates were not due to increased stomatal resistance.
Richard K. Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
Effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and temperature on quantitative axillary budbreak and elongation of pinched chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] plants were studied in three experiments. In Expt. 1, 12 commercial cultivars were compared under fall and spring environmental conditions. Spring increases in lateral shoot counts were attributable to increased PPF and air temperature. Cultivars varied from 0 to 12 lateral branches per pinched plant and by as much as 60% between seasons. There was a linear relationship between lateral branches >5 cm at 3 weeks after pinching and final branch count (y = 0.407 + 0.914(x), r 2 = 0.92). In Expt. 2, air was at 20 or 25C and the root zone was maintained at 5, 0, or –5C relative to air temperature. With air at 20C, lateral branch counts (3 weeks after pinch) declined by ≤50% with the medium at 15C relative to 25C. At 25C, lateral branch count was lower with medium at 30C than at 20C. Cultivars differed in their response to the treatments. Experiment 3 compared the interactions among temperature, PPF, and cultivar on lateral branch count. Depending on cultivar, the count increased the higher the PPF between 400 and 1400 μmol·m–2·s–1. Air temperature had no effect on lateral branch count. PPF had a stronger effect on lateral branch count than air temperature, and cultivars differed in their response.
William M. Womack, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
`Prize' and `Gloria' azaleas were budded at 29C day/24C night without growth regulators. Dormant-budded plants were held at 2, 7, 13, or 18C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks and then forced in walk-in growth chambers (29C day/24C night). A model was developed to describe the effect of cooling temperature and duration on days to marketability (eight open flowers) and percent of buds showing color. Holding at temperatures below 7C, increases days to marketability up to 7 days. Extended cooling (beyond 6 weeks) at temperatures <7C increases percent of buds showing color. Extended holding at temperatures >7C decreases buds in color due to development of bypass shoots during cooling and increased bud abortion. Plants not receiving a cool-treatment or cooled for <2 weeks do not flower uniformly. Furthermore, the percentage of plants reaching marketability dramatically decreases for plants held longer than 6 weeks at temperatures >7C. Both cultivars show similar trends, but `Gloria' has greater variability.
William M. Womack, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Dormant-budded `Prize' azaleas (Rhododendron sp.) were held at 2C, 7C, 13C, or 18C for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks then forced in walk-in growth chambers (29C day/24C night). Holding at 2C delayed flowering by 5-7 days over 7C and 13C. Plants held at 2C, 7C, or 13C for at least 4 weeks had approximately 50% buds showing color at marketability (8 open flowers). Plants held at 18C never exceeded 35% buds showing color at marketability. Increase in buds showing color was not apparent for plants were held at 7C, 13C, or 18C for more than 6 weeks; however, holding at 2C resulted in increasing percentages of buds showing color for holding periods longer than 6 weeks. Plants chilled at 13C and 18C showed significant increases in bud abortion after 8 or 10 weeks of cooling with most plants never reaching marketability (8 open flowers). These plants also had an increased proliferation of bypass shoots during cooling and forcing over other treatments.
Thea M Edwards, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Increased rates of senescence and ethylene related damage of potted flowering plants have been observed in supermarket produce areas where flowers and climacteric produce are displayed together. Ethylene levels in produce areas were found to average 20 ppb. An open system of clear glass chambers with fiberglass lids was designed to simulate retail supermarket conditions. The chambers were kept in postharvest rooms where light level and temperature could be controlled. In a 3 by 3 by 3 Box-Behnken design, Sunblaze `Candy' miniature potted roses were exposed to three levels of ethylene, 20, 40, and 80 ppb, for 1, 2, and 4 days. The three light levels used were: 0, 7, and 14 μmol·m-2·s-1. Ethylene damage was based on leaf and bud drop and decreased flower longevity.
Nadia Roude, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Chrysanthemums `Bright Golden Anne' and `Iridon' [Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were grown with N concentrations of 1.3, 2.6, or 5.2 kg N/m' of water during the crop cycle from either Osmocote slow-release 14N-6.2P-11.6K or 12.4N4.4P-14.lK or Peters soluble 20N-4.4P-16.6K. Plants were moved to simulated interior rooms at flowering to evaluate effects of the treatments on longevity. `Bright Golden Anne' longevity was not affected by fertilizer source, but `Iridon' longevity was reduced when Peters soluble fertilizer was applied at 2.6 and 5.2 kg N/m3 of water, whereas N concentration did not affect longevity when the slow-release Osmocote fertilizer was used. In an additional study, `Tip', `Copper Hostess', and `Iridon' were grown in three soil media using 1.3, 2.6, or 5.2 kg N/m' of water using Peters soluble 20N-4.4P-16.6K fertilizer from time of planting until flowering. Longevity increased as N concentration decreased when chrysanthemums were grown in Metro Mix 350, whereas N concentration had no significant effect on chrysanthemums grown in Vergro Klay Mix or a peat-perlite-sand mix. `Tip' showed significant in. creases in longevity as N concentration decreased.
Trinidad Reyes, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
`Tara' and `Boaldi' were fertilized with 150 and 450 ppm from 20N–4.7P–16.6K soluble fertilizer and moved at flowering to postproduction conditions (21 ± 2C and 10 μmol·m–2·s–1). Shipping was simulated for 1 week at 26C. `Tara' exhibited burned leaf margins (necrosis) and chlorosis following shipping. At 150 ppm, leaves had brown, dried margins, but the damage did not progress indoors. Necrosis was worse at 450 ppm. Leaf chlorosis/necrosis of non-shipped plants at the 450 fertilizer level did not appear until the 3rd week indoors. At experiment termination, no leaf damage occurred in non-shipped `Tara' or `Boaldi' with 150 ppm. `Boaldi' did not show damage after shipping regardless of the treatment but symptoms (necrosis and wilting of leaves) evolved during the first 2 weeks indoors on plants fertilized with 450 ppm. A 50% reduction in root soluble carbohydrates was found at the highest fertilizer rate at flowering, suggesting that leaf chlorosis/necrosis is related to carbohydrate depletion in chrysanthemum.
Brent M. Chapman, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell
Catharanthus roseus `Cooler Peppermint' were grown under four different watering regimes [well-watered (WW), wilt plus 1 day (W+1), wilt plus 3 days (W+3), and wilt plus 1 day during the last 2 weeks only (L W+1)] and two different light levels [1100 and 750 μmol·m–2·s–1]. Stress treatments affected finished plant size and leaf area as well as stomatal conductance, water potential and time to wilt during two dry-down periods imposed at the end of an 8-week production cycle. W+3 plants were 50% smaller with 50% less leaf area compared to WW plants. During the second dry-down period, WW plants in high light wilted in 2 days vs 4 days for the W+3 plants. Similarly, WW plants in low light wilted in 3 days vs 6 days for the W+3 plants. The W+3 plants maintained significantly higher water potentials and greater stomatal conductances than the other treatments throughout both dry-down periods.
G.H. Pemberton, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett
Senescence of gladiolus flowers, like many geophytes, does not involve a climacteric burst of ethylene. Eleven gladiolus cultivars were screened and all were non-climacteric (NC) for both respiration and ethylene production. Average ethylene levels for individual flowers were 0.5 μl C2H4/kg per h or less. As in other NC flowers, protein synthesis may be linked to senescence. Our goal was to identify specific proteins that were involved in the senescence process that could be used as indicators of postharvest longevity. SDS-PAGE protein profiles of cut gladiolus flowers were determined from a tight bud stage to senescence. Both increases and decreases were observed in major polypeptides that may be connected to postharvest flower longevity. Total protein content of gladiolus flower petals decreased by ≈70% during the profile period. This could explain the relatively short postharvest life of 3 to 5 days for individual gladiolus flowers. Total protein profiles were probed with an ACC synthase antibody to establish the relationship of this enzyme in NC senescence.