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T.K. Hartz*, P.R. Johnstone, and J.J. Nunez

Cracking of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots during harvest and handling is a serious problem for the commercial industry, particularly for `cut and peeled' products. Thirty commercial fields of cv. `Sugar Snax' in California were surveyed over the period 2000-03. Soil texture was determined, and soil and crop nutrient status, air temperature and soil moisture were monitored. In 10 fields the effect of excessive N fertilization was investigated; 90-180 kg·ha-1 N was sidedressed in addition to the growers' N regime. At one site a comparison of 10 cultivars was conducted to determine the root cracking sensitivity of commercial cultivars suitable for the cut and peeled market. In all fields roots were hand harvested, with undamaged roots 18-24 mm in diameter selected for study. Roots were cooled to 5 °C and subjected to an impact test to rate cracking sensitivity. Fields varied widely in root cracking sensitivity, with 4% to76% of roots cracked in the impact test. Cracking sensitivity was positively correlated with the % silt and clay in soil, and with air temperature in the final month of growth. Irrigation management had no consistent effect on cracking sensitivity. N application in excess of the growers' N regime did not increase carrot yield, but increased root cracking sensitivity by an average of 30%. Root cracking varied among cultivars from 10% to 49%. However, when the periderm was peeled from roots before impact testing, incidence of cracking declined to 2% or less in all cultivars. Periderm strength or flexibility is apparently the dominant factor in carrot cracking sensitivity, and environmental and management variables that affect cracking sensitivity must do so by affecting the periderm structure.

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T.K. Hartz, E. Miyao, J. Valencia, and R. Mullen

Nearly 100 commercial processing tomato fields in California were sampled during 1993–94 with the objective of developing DRIS (Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System) nutrient norms. More than 30 farming operations and a wide range of soil types and conditions were included in the survey. Whole, recently mature compound leaves (blade + petiole) were collected at three growth stages: first bloom, main fruit set, and 10% to 30% red fruit. Fields were classified by fruit yield as high (>90 MT/ha) or low yield (<78 MT/ha); mean yield for these groups was 58 and 103 MT/ha, respectively. DRIS nutrient norms and nutrient ratios were calculated, by growth stage, for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. Tissue concentrations of Zn, Mn, and Fe were so highly variable that meaningful ratios could not be achieved. DRIS norms varied substantially among growth stages, with K concentration declining precipitously, N and P declining modestly, and Ca, Mg, and S remaining relatively stable over the season. Evaluation of DRIS indices showed that ≈25% of low-yield fields exhibited serious nutrient imbalance. K was implicated as the most-frequently limiting nutrient.

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T.K. Hartz, E.M. Miyao, and J.G. Valencia

Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were derived for processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) from a 1993-94 survey of >100 fields in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California. Relative foliar N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations were expressed in ratio form, with DRIS norms calculated as the means of fields with fruit yield ≥90 Mg·ha-1. Norms were developed for three growth stages: first bloom, full bloom, and 10% of fruits ripe. Optimum foliar nutrient concentration ranges were calculated by regression analysis from DRIS nutrient indices of high-yield fields. These optimum ranges were in general agreement with existing empirically derived sufficiency ranges for N and P, higher for Ca, Mg, and S, and much lower for K. The relatively low foliar K levels observed were attributed primarily to the strongly determinate growth habit of currently used cultivars. In the fields sampled, yield-limiting nutrient deficiency appeared to be rare.

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T.K. Hartz, P.R. Johnstone, and J.J. Nunez

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) root cracking and breakage during harvest and handling operations result in serious losses. The environmental and management factors affecting carrot cracking and breakage susceptibility were investigated in a survey of fields and a series of trials conducted in California from 2000–02. Roots, leaves and soil were collected from a total of 31 commercial fields of `Sugar Snax' carrot, and soil texture and plant and soil fertility status were determined. Soil moisture was monitored in 10 fields to determine whether irrigation management was correlated with root cracking susceptibility; in 4 of these fields roots were harvested both before 0800 hr and at 1300 hr on the same day to directly compare the effects of root water status on cracking. The effect of N fertilization on cracking and breakage was investigated in 5 field trials. The relative susceptibility of 10 cultivars to cracking and breakage was also compared. Cracking susceptibility was determined with an impact test, and breakage with a loading test. Roots were selected by size (18 to 24 mm diameter) and cooled to 5 °C before testing. The percentage of roots cracked in the impact test varied from 7% to 75% among survey fields. Initial root water potential was not correlated with cracking incidence. However, after hydrating roots to minimize differences in water potential among fields, cracking incidence was correlated with turgor potential (r = 0.41). Soil sand content and mean air temperature in the 30 days preceding harvest were also correlated with cracking (r = –0.48 and 0.36, respectively), suggesting that cracking susceptibility may be minimized in cool weather and in light-textured soil. Irrigation management in the final 30 days preceding harvest had no consistent effect on root cracking. Time of day of harvest had a small but significant effect, with roots harvested before 0800 hr being more crack-susceptible. N fertilization in excess of that required to maximize root yield significantly increased cracking susceptibility. Cultivars varied widely in cracking susceptibility, with less variation in tissue strength and stiffness. Removal of the periderm dramatically decreased susceptibility to both cracking and breakage.

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T.K. Hartz, W.E. Bendixen, and L. Wierdsma

The utility of presidedress soil nitrate testing (PSNT) in irrigated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) production was evaluated in 15 commercial fields in California from 1996 to 1997. Fields were selected in which soil NO3-N (5- to 30-cm depth) was >20 mg·kg–1 at the time the cooperating grower made the first sidedress N application. The grower's N regime was compared with reduced N treatments established by reducing or eliminating one or more sidedress applications. All fields were sprinkler and/or furrow irrigated, with minimal in-season precipitation. Reductions in seasonal N application averaging 143 and 209 kg·ha–1 N in lettuce and celery trials, respectively, had no effect on marketable yield in any field. Crop biomass N at harvest in the lowest N treatment in each field averaged 94% (lettuce) and 88% (celery) of that in plots receiving the full grower N program. Based on controlled-environment aerobic incubation of soil from 30 fields in long-term vegetable rotations, in-season N mineralization averaged 1% to 2% of soil organic N. A soil NO3-N “quick test” procedure utilizing a volumetric extraction of field-moist soil and measurement by nitrate-sensitive colorimetric test strips was evaluated and proved to be a practical on-farm method to estimate soil NO3-N concentration. Lettuce midrib NO3-N concentration at cupping stage was poorly correlated with current soil NO3-N level. We conclude that PSNT can reliably identify fields in which sidedress N application can be delayed or eliminated without affecting crop performance.

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T.K. Hartz, E.M. Miyao, and J.G. Valencia

Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) norms were derived for processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) from a 1993-94 survey of >100 fields in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California. Relative foliar N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations were expressed in ratio form, with DRIS norms calculated as the means of fields with fruit yield ≥90 Mg·ha-1. Norms were developed for three growth stages: first bloom, full bloom, and 10% of fruits ripe. Optimum foliar nutrient concentration ranges were calculated by regression analysis from DRIS nutrient indices of high-yield fields. These optimum ranges were in general agreement with existing empirically derived sufficiency ranges for N and P, higher for Ca, Mg, and S, and much lower for K. The relatively low foliar K levels observed were attributed primarily to the strongly determinate growth habit of currently used cultivars. In the fields sampled, yield-limiting nutrient deficiency appeared to be rare.

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T.K. Hartz, E.M. Miyao, and C. Giannini

Three field trials were conducted in central California in 1999 to assess the effects of transplant production and handling practices on yield, crop maturity, and fruit quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). For each trial, transplants of `Halley' tomato were obtained from a variety of commercial greenhouse transplant growers and subjected to various conditioning treatments during the week prior to planting. These treatments included N and/or P fertilization, varying temperature exposure or degree of water stress, or storage in the dark for 2 days before transplanting to simulate shipment from greenhouse to field. Nine transplant treatments (combinations of transplant source and conditioning treatment) were evaluated in each trial, with five 30 m long single-row plots per treatment arranged in a randomized complete-block design. Plots were mechanically harvested. Despite large differences among treatments in initial transplant characteristics (plant height, root cell volume, macronutrient content), there were no significant treatment differences in fruit yield in two trials; in the third trial, one treatment had significantly lower yield than the highest yielding treatment. In no trial were treatment differences in crop maturity (percent green fruit) or fruit quality (soluble solids content or juice color) significant. Across trials, the only transplant characteristic positively correlated with relative fruit yield (treatment yield/mean yield of that trial) was shoot P concentration, which varied among treatments from 1.3 to 11.7 g·kg–1.

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T.K. Hartz, A. Baameur, and D.B. Holt

The feasibility of field-scale CO2 enrichment of vegetable crops grown under tunnel culture was studied with cucumber (Cucumis saivus L. cv. Dasher II), summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Gold Bar), and tomato (Lycopersicon escukntum Mill. cv. Bingo) grown under polyethylene tunnels. The drip irrigation system was used to uniformly deliver a CO2-enriched air stream independent of irrigation. Carbon dioxide was maintained between 700 and 1000 μl·liter-1 during daylight hours. Enrichment began immediately after crop establishment and continued for ≈4 weeks. At the end of the treatment phase, enrichment had significantly increased plant dry weight in the 2 years of tests. This growth advantage continued through harvest, with enriched cucumber, squash, and tomato plots yielding 30%, 20%, and 32% more fruit, respectively, in 1989. In 1990, cucumber and squash yields were increased 20%, and 16%, respectively. As performed, the expense of CO2 enrichment represented less than a 10% increase in total preharvest costs. A similar test was conducted on fall-planted strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cvs. Irvine and Chandler). Carbon dioxide enrichment under tunnel culture modestly increased `Irvine' yields but did not affect `Chandler'.

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P.R. Johnstone, T.K. Hartz, and D.M. May

California melon (Cucumis melo) growers commonly apply calcium (Ca) fertilizers during fruit development to increase fruit firmness and improve storage life. Drip-irrigated field trials were conducted in central California in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate the efficacy of this practice on honeydew (C. melo Inodorus group) and muskmelon (C. melo Reticulatus group). In the 2005 honeydew trial, three weekly applications of 10 lb/acre Ca from calcium nitrate (CN), calcium thiosulfate (CTS), or calcium chloride (CC) were injected into the irrigation system during early melon development. In the 2006 muskmelon trial, two applications of 15 lb/acre Ca from CTS or CC were made early, or two applications of CC late, in melon development. The effect of these Ca fertigation treatments on fruit yield, soluble solids concentration, flesh firmness, and Ca concentration were compared with an untreated control receiving no Ca fertigation. Calcium fertigation had no effect on marketable yield, quality, or Ca concentration of honeydew or muskmelon fruit regardless of application timing or Ca source applied. Loss of firmness during either 2 weeks (honeydew) or 1 week (muskmelon) of postharvest storage was unrelated to Ca fertigation treatment and was not correlated with Ca concentration in fruit tissue. We conclude that under conditions representative of the California melon industry, Ca fertigation at typical application rates is ineffective in improving honeydew or muskmelon yield or fruit quality.

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T.K. Hartz, F.J. Costa, and W.L. Schrader

The study was undertaken to determine the physiochemical properties and nutrient supply characteristics of composted green yard and landscape waste (CGW) and to document its performance as a field soil amendment or constituent of potting media. Three CGW samples were collected from each of two composting operations in California from Nov. 1993 to Apr. 1994. Macronutrient content varied widely between operations, and among samples from the same operation, with mean total N, P, and K levels averaging 1.1%, 0.26%, and 0.67%, respectively. Controlled-environment incubation of a moist 1 CGW: 9 soil blend (2 weeks at 30 °C) was conducted to determine net N mineralization from CGW. Despite low C: N ratios (<12), five of six CGW samples showed net immobilization, a characteristic of immature compost. An in-field incubation of soil amended with 1% or 2% CGW (w/w) showed no net N release from CGW over 4 months. In a field trial, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit yield was increased by soil amendment with CGW (17 or 34 t·ha–1) under a low N fertilizer regime (168 kg·ha–1), but was unaffected where sufficient fertilizer N (280 kg·ha–1) was applied. CGW was compared with peat as a constituent of potting media; both were blended 1:1 (v/v) with perlite and used in the production of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) plants under varying fertigation regimes (constant feed of N at 0, 50, or 100 mg·L–1 as 15N–13P–12K). CGW was equivalent or superior to peat in plant growth; CGW did contribute to crop macronutrient nutrition, but the highest fertigation rate was required for optimum growth.