Shearing is an important cultural practice for maintaining plant size and appearance during nursery crop production. However, oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia) is susceptible to dieback after shearing. The objective of this study was to determine whether foliar or substrate surface applications of ancymidol or uniconazole can reduce plant growth of oakleaf hydrangea similar to pinching, which was used to simulate shearing. ‘Alice’ or ‘Pee Wee’ oakleaf hydrangea plants were treated in 2002 or 2006, respectively, with ancymidol or uniconazole as a substrate surface application at 0, 1, 2, or 4 ppm; ancymidol as a foliar application at 0, 25, 50, or 100 ppm; or uniconazole as a foliar application at 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 ppm. Both cultivars received the same plant growth regulator treatments in 2012, and a pinched control was included in the 2012 experiment. Ancymidol and uniconazole had limited and inconsistent effects on growth of ‘Alice’ and ‘Pee Wee’ plants regardless of application method. Uniconazole was more effective at controlling growth of ‘Alice’ in 2002 when the study was conducted from October through December than in 2012 when the study was conducted during a more typical growing season of May through September. Plants treated with either ancymidol or uniconazole by either application method usually grew more during the first 2 weeks after application than those that were pinched. During the remainder of the growing season, little difference in growth between pinched plants and growth regulator-treated plants occurred. At harvest in 2012, pinched ‘Alice’ plants had more leaves but a smaller leaf area per leaf than plants treated with growth regulators resulting in no difference in total leaf area or in leaf, shoot, or root dry weight among the treatments. ‘Pee Wee’ treated with uniconazole using either application method or uniconazole as a foliar application had fewer leaves than pinched plants.
Janet C. Cole, Robert O. Brown, and Mark E. Payton
Kathryn E. Fine, Janet C. Cole, and Chad J. Penn
Nitrogen (N) release rate from organic materials through mineralization is affected by the organic material and environmental conditions. Determining rates of mineralization for canola (Brassica rapa L.) meal and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) meal with or without soapstock (a waste byproduct of seed oil extraction) will establish appropriate application rates for consumers. Canola meal, cottonseed meal, cottonseed meal with soapstock, or no treatment (control) was incorporated at a rate of 4.9 g·m−2 N into three loam soils. Experimental units were incubated for 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, or 60 days while maintaining moisture at 60% water-holding capacity and then analyzed for NH4-N and NO3-N, then plant available N was calculated as NH4-N+NO3-N. Ammonium increased with each seed meal amendment during the first 14 days of incubation and then decreased. Nitrate increased in seed meal treatments during the first 14 days of incubation and then continued to increase as NH4-N ions declined. Canola meal and cottonseed meal with or without soapstock increase plant-available soil N.
Carlma B. Bratcher, John M. Dole, and Janet C. Cole
The germination responses of wild blue indigo [Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br.], purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.), spike goldenrod (Solidago petiolaris Ait.), and Missouri ironweed (Vernonia missurica Raf.) seeds after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks of stratification at 5C were investigated. Seed viability was determined using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and germination based on the percentage of viable seeds. Germination percentage (GP) increased in all five species as weeks of stratification increased. Days to first germination and germination range (days from first to last germinating seed) decreased with increasing weeks of stratification, but the effect beyond 4 to 6 weeks was minimal. The number of weeks of stratification for maximum GP was 4 for purple coneflower, 6 for Maximilian sunflower, 8 for Missouri ironweed, and 10 for wild blue indigo and spike goldenrod.
Diane E. Dunn, Janet C. Cole, and Michael W. Smith
The objective of this study was to determine the most advantageous time to collect cuttings of Chinese pistache, a commonly recommended ornamental shade tree that is difficult to propagate by cuttings. In 1993, calendar date and degree days (daily mean temperature -7.2C) were used to estimate an appropriate cutting time. The greatest percentage of rooted cuttings occurred in male cuttings harvested on 13 May 1993 (397 degree days) and treated with 17,500 mg·liter-1 IBA or in male cuttings harvested on 20 May 1993 (482 degree days) and treated with either 8750 or 17,500 mg·liter-1 IBA. In 1994, cutting time was associated with calendar days, degree days, and morphology. The most rooted cuttings (44%) were from green softwood cuttings taken on 9 May 1994, which was 380 degree days from orange budbreak using a threshold temperature of 7.2C. Orange budbreak was characterized by separation of the outer bud scales such that the orange, pubescent inner bud scales were visible. Cuttings taken on 9 May 1994 and treated with 8750 mg·liter-1 IBA produced the most primary and secondary roots and the longest primary roots per cutting. Male Chinese pistache cuttings should be collected from green softwood or red semi-softwood stems when about 380 to 573 degree days have accumulated after orange budbreak. Chemical names used: indolebutyric acid (IBA).
Janet C. Cole, Roger Kjelgren, and David L. Hensley
Nursery crops have traditionally been grown in the field and harvested as balled and burlapped or bareroot plants or grown in above-ground containers. A relatively recent product, the in-ground fabric container, has allowed producers to combine advantages of field production with those of container production. The effect of these containers on plant growth, transplant establishment, plant chemical composition, and water relations appears to be species and site specific.
Stephanie L. Schupbach-Ningen, Janet C. Cole, James T. Cole, and Kenneth E. Conway
The effectiveness of chlorothalonil, mancozeb, and trifloxystrobin applied alone or in rotations of two or three fungicides to control anthracnose symptoms caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was evaluated on three cultivars of field- and container-grown wintercreeper euonymus (Euonymus fortunei) during the 2001 growing season. Studies were conducted at Stillwater, Okla.; Fayetteville, Ark.; and Park Hill, Okla. Rooted cuttings of wintercreeper euonymus `Emerald Gaiety', `Emerald 'n Gold', and `Emerald Surprise' were transplanted from 1-gal plastic containers into field soil at the Oklahoma State University Nursery Research Station and at the University of Arkansas Horticulture Farm on 10 May 2001. In a parallel study, recently transplanted rooted cuttings of the same cultivars in 1-gal pots containing substrate consisting of pine bark and sand were placed in a shadehouse under 30% shade at Stillwater and Fayetteville and 73% shade at Park Hill on 11 May 2001. `Emerald Gaiety' had fewer disease symptoms than `Emerald 'n Gold' or `Emerald Surprise' in the field and in containers at Stillwater and Fayetteville. At Fayetteville, mancozeb applied alone or in rotation with chlorothalonil or trifloxystrobin provided better anthracnose control than treatments without mancozeb, but no fungicide eliminated anthracnose symptoms. Application of fungicides in rotations that include mancozeb and use of resistant cultivars can help decrease anthracnose symptoms.
Adam O. Maggard, Rodney E. Will, Thomas C. Hennessey, Craig R. McKinley, and Janet C. Cole
The objective of this research was to determine the response of soil properties and plant growth to the application of various tree-based mulches and provide information specifically regarding attributes of eastern redcedar mulch (Juniperus virginiana). Eastern redcedar mulch, cypress mulch (Taxodium distichum), pine bark nuggets [southern yellow pine (Pinus sp.)], pine mulch (southern yellow pine), hardwood mulch [maple (Acer sp.), oak (Quercus sp.)], red-dyed mulch [maple, poplar (Populus sp.)], and grand eucalyptus mulch (Eucalyptus grandis), as well as two nonmulched controls (with and without chemical weed control) were tested. Volumetric soil moisture, soil nutrients, soil temperature, weed growth, and growth and survival of planted annuals and trees were measured. Compared with nonmulched controls, mulch treatments generally increased growth of annuals and trees and decreased weed growth, but few differences in measured variables were noted among mulch types. Mulched plots had greater volumetric soil moisture than nonmulched plots during extended periods without rainfall. Mulched plots had more moderate diurnal soil temperatures than nonmulched control plots. Soil pH and soil potassium increased with hardwood mulch during the 2 years of the study. These results indicate tree-based mulch benefits plant growth and survival by maintaining greater soil moisture, decreasing competition from weeds, and moderating soil temperatures compared with not using mulch. Eastern redcedar mulch provides similar benefits as other common wood mulches and is a viable forest product.
Louis B. Anella*, Keith Reed, P.I. Erickson, and Janet C. Cole
Although roses have long been an important landscape plant, there is a growing interest in the use of low-maintenance roses that do not require heavy pruning or spraying. Poulsen Roser Pacific, Inc. of Central Point, Oregon, provided three plants of 48 cultivars for a trial in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The plants were produced in Oregon by grafting cultivars on seedling Rosa multiflora rootstock. Two-year-old plants were shipped bare-root to Stillwater, Oklahoma where they were planted in the field in early April, 2001. The plants were placed in three randomized complete blocks (rows) with 90 cm spacing between plants and 240 cm spacing between rows. The plants were drip irrigated as needed. During the 2002 growing season the roses were evaluated weekly for flower number, black spot, and overall quality. Four rose cultivars from Poulsen's Town and Country® series of landscape roses, Martha's Vineyard™ (`Poulans'), followed by Madison™ (`Poulrijk'), Kent™ (`Poulcov'), and Tumbling Waters™ (`Poultumb'), had the highest average flower number. Martha's Vineyard™, Kent™, and Tumbling Waters™ also rated highest among the cultivars tested for overall plant quality and black spot resistance. Other roses in the top grouping (Waller-Duncan K-ratio t test) for black spot resistance and overall quality were: Ragtime™ (`Poultieme', a climber from the Courtyard® series), Sophia Renaissance® (`Poulen002', Renaissance® series), Nashville™ (`Poulbico', Town and Country® series), Redwood™ (`Poultry', National Parks® series), Julia Renaissance® (`Poulheart', Renaissance® series), Santa Barbara™ (`Pouloesy', Town and Country® series), and Everglades™ (`Poulege', National Parks® series).
Stephanie S. Ningen, Janet C. Cole, Michael W. Smith, Diane E. Dunn, and Kenneth E. Conway
The effectiveness of shade intensity and time of day in which irrigation was applied were tested for control of anthracnose symptoms caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. on container-grown Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. `Canadale Gold', `Emerald 'n Gold', and `Emerald Gaiety' during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Rooted cuttings in 3.8 L containers were placed in 0% (full sun), 63%, 73%, or 80% shade at Park Hill, Okla., in 2002 and 2003 and at Stillwater, Okla., in 2002. Overhead irrigation was used to irrigate one-half of the plants in each cultivar and shade treatment in the morning and the other one-half during the afternoon. At both sites, disease damage ratings were inversely related to shade intensity throughout each growing season. Disease incidence was usually lower on afternoon irrigated plants than on morning irrigated plants. `Canadale Gold' typically had the most anthracnose symptoms followed by `Emerald 'n Gold'. `Emerald Gaiety' had the least symptoms regardless of shade intensity or irrigation time.
Theresa L. Bosma, Janet C. Cole, Kenneth E. Conway, and John M. Dole
Canterbury bells (Campanula medium `Champion Blue') seeds were primed using calcined clay at 68 °F (20 °C) for 1, 3, or 5 days at water potentials (Ψ) of -25, -20, -18, or -16 bars (-2.5, -2.0, -1.8, or -1.6 MPa). Germination was fastest (3.0 to 3.1 days) after priming with a Ψ of -18 or -16 bars for 5 days. Seeds primed for 3 or 5 days with moisture present germinated faster than nonprimed seeds, but time to 50% germination (T50) was longer when seeds were primed for 1 day regardless of Ψ compared to nonprimed seed. Germination uniformity decreased (time from 10% to 90% germination, T10-90, increased) as Ψ increased. Although a curvilinear relationship existed between T10-90 and priming duration, T10-90 did not differ between nonprimed seeds and seeds in any priming treatment except those primed for 3 days with 20% moisture (-16 bars). Priming did not affect total germination percentage (97%).