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Sean J. Markovic, Shana G. Brown, and James E. Klett

Stock plant productivity is an important concern for growers of mojave sage (Salvia pachyphylla) because this species produces more woody growth as the plant ages. The objective of the study was to determine the best growth substrate and container size combination to maximize stock plant productivity. A secondary objective was to determine whether the stock plant treatments influenced the rooting of vegetative cuttings. Three different container sizes (3, 12, and 15.5 qt) and four soilless substrates composed primarily of bark, peat, and perlite (substrate 1); bark, peat, and vermiculite (substrate 2); bark, peat, and coarse perlite (substrate 3); and peat (substrate 4) were used. The stock plant experiment was conducted using 12 treatment combinations, and a subset of those stock plants was selected randomly for the rooting study that immediately followed the stock plant experiment. Stock plants responded to substrate treatments differently. The most successful stock plants, which produced more cuttings per plant and per square foot, as well as larger cuttings, were those grown in substrate 3. Regardless of substrate, the highest number of cuttings per square foot was obtained from stock plants grown in 3-qt containers, indicating that the smaller containers allow for the most efficient use of space when growing mojave sage stock plants for 4 to 6 months. The rooting of vegetative cuttings was successful (88% to 100% of cuttings rooted after 4 weeks under mist) for all treatment combinations.

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Mary H. Meyer, Pamela J. Bennett, Barbara Fair, James E. Klett, Kimberly Moore, H. Brent Pemberton, Leonard Perry, Jane Rozum, Alan Shay, and Matthew D. Taylor

Landscape plant evaluations were conducted in eight states: Colorado, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Vermont for 17 switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and five little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) cultivars. Additional locations in Florida (Fort Lauderdale, Fort Pierce, Quincy, and Wimauma), Nebraska (Lincoln), and Lubbock and San Marcos completed 1 or 2 years of the trials. Plants were established in 2012 and data were collected for 3 years, 2013–15. Sites were asked to compile annual data on plant height, width, flowering time, fall color, pests, foliage color determined by the Royal Horticultural Society’s color chart, plant form, flowering date, floral impact, self-seeding, winter injury, landscape impact, and mortality. Texas A&M Agricultural Research and Extension Center (Overton), Florida (all four locations), and Vermont had the highest mortality rate. Southern Florida locations lost 50% of their plants by the end of 2014. Wide variation was reported for landscape impact, individual cultivar height, and width from different regions of the United States. Three of the 17 switchgrass cultivars, Cloud 9, Northwind, and Thundercloud, had a rating of 4.0 or higher averaged over six or more locations for plant form, floral, and landscape impact. ‘Shenandoah’ and ‘Warrior’ switchgrass had a rating of 4.0 or higher averaged over six or more locations for plant form and landscape impact, but not floral impact. Only one of the five little bluestem cultivars, Blue Heaven® rated 4.0 or higher, for plant form and landscape impact when averaged over six or more locations. This range of variability in landscape plant performance demonstrates the importance of local plant evaluations.