Hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex) treatments were applied to 17 insufficiently chilled peach and nectarine cultivars ≈6 weeks after normal budbreak. Treatment effectively induced vegetative budbreak and reduced shoot dieback. The responses to Dormex treatments were linear, with the 2% rate being more effective than the 0 and 1% rates in most cases.
W.A. Dozier Jr., A.A. Powell, A.W. Caylor, N.R. McDaniel, E.L. Carden, and J.A. McGuire
W.A. Dozier Jr., A.W. Caylor, D.G. Himelrick, A.A. Powell, A.J. Latham, J.A. Pitts, and J.A. McGuire
Own-rooted, 4-year-old kiwifruit plants [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] protected by a Styrofoam insulation wrap with a water-filled pouch (Reese clip-on trunk wrap) or by microsprinkler irrigation sustained less freeze injury than unprotected plants under field conditions at temperatures as low as -17.8C. Trunk splitting occurred on the plants, but no injury was detected on canes, buds, or shoots in the canopy of the plants. Unprotected plants had more trunk splitting and at greater heights than protected plants. New canes developed from suck- ers of cold-injured plants and developed a trellised canopy the following season.
Charles A. Powell, Michael S. Burton, Robert Pelosi, Mark A. Ritenour, and Robert C. Bullock
Population density of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was monitored in a Florida citrus grove for 5 years by scouting weekly for larval-induced mines (leafminer-created tunnels in the leaves) in a replicated citrus plot treated with seven insect control regimes: Admire (imidacloprid) applied at 12, 6, 3, or 2-month intervals; Temik (aldicarb) applied annually; Metasystox-R (oxydemeton-methyl) applied annually; or no insect control. Leafminer populations were highest during the warmer months (April to September) and lowest during the cooler months (November to March). Populations peaked during June in all 5 years monitored. Trees treated with Temik or Metasystox-R had the same number of mines as the untreated controls. A biannual treatment with Admire reduced leafminer damage (number of mines) all 5 years compared with the controls. Additional Admire applications further reduced damage during some, but not all, years. A single application of Admire significantly reduced mines in 3 of the 5 years.
Allison D. Oakes, Tyler Desmarais, William A. Powell, and Charles A. Maynard
Many hardwood tree species are being threatened by exotic pests, and for some, only genetic engineering can offer a solution before functional extinction occurs. An example of how genetic engineering can be a useful tool for forest restoration is the transgenic american chestnuts, which contain a wheat oxalate oxidase gene conferring resistance to the chestnut blight. Many hundreds of these trees are needed for field trials and eventual restoration plantings throughout its natural range, but production is bottlenecked because of the difficulty of making hardwood trees produce roots through micropropagation. The presence of roots and living shoot tips precede successful acclimatization of tissue culture-produced american chestnut plantlets. In these experiments, we attempted to improve the post-rooting stage of our american chestnut propagation protocol. We examined vessel type, hormone, and activated charcoal concentrations, and using a vermiculite substrate. For plantlets with the best combination of roots and living shoot tips we recommend using semisolid post-rooting medium containing 2 g·L−1 activated charcoal and 500 mg humic acid in disposable fast-food takeout containers. When using vermiculite as a substrate, adding 2.0 g·L−1 activated charcoal to post-rooting medium without a gelling agent was the preferred treatment. Improving the survival rates of the american chestnut plantlets will benefit the american chestnut restoration project by providing more plant material for both ecological studies and eventual restoration, since pursuit of a nonregulated status for these transgenic trees will require extensive field testing. These procedures may also be applicable to other difficult-to-root hardwood trees in transgenic programs, such as american butternut, white oak, and black walnut.
C.A. Powell, R.R. Pelosi, M.S. Burton, P.A. Rundell, M.A. Ritenour, and R.C. Bullock
The effectiveness of seven different aphid control regimes in delaying movement of decline (DI) and nondecline (NDI) inducing isolates of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) into a CTV-free sweet orange scion on sour orange rootstock block was monitored annually for 5 years beginning in 1999, 2 years after the introduction of the brown citrus aphid (BrCA) into the region. After 5 years, the mean percentages of infection with DI CTV were 19, 19, 17, 29, 23, 19, or 14 for trees treated annually with imidocloprid, every 6 months with imidocloprid, every 3 months with imidocloprid, every 2 months with imidocloprid, annually with Temik, annually with Meta Systox-R, or untreated, respectively. The mean percentages of infection (after 5 years) with only NDI isolates of CTV for the seven treatments were 40, 31, 33, 38, 38, 38, or 33. There was no significant difference (after 5 years) among either the DI or NDI CTV treatment means. The overall 5-year infection percentage for DI CTV (20%) was somewhat lower than that reported before the introduction of the BrCA (27%) (11). Aphid densities (Toxoptera citricidus and Aphis spiraecola) varied considerably from year to year. Good aphid control was achieved with all four imidocloprid treatments, but not with Temik or Meta Systox-R. The level of aphid control did not influence overall CTV infection percentages.
Charles A. Powell, Michael S. Burton, Robert R. Pelosi, Phyllis A. Rundell, Mark A. Ritenour, and Robert C. Bullock
The population densities of the brown citrus aphid (BrCA) (Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy) and the spirea aphid (SA) Aphis spiraecola Patch were monitored by scouting weekly for 6 years in a replicated citrus plot treated with 7 insect control regimes: Admire (imidacloprid) applied at 12, 6, 3, or 2 month intervals; Temik applied annually; Meta-Systox-R applied annually; or no insect control. The numbers of both aphid species varied greatly from month to month and year to year. The brown citrus aphid was normally only detected in the fall (August through December) with populations peaking in September, October, or December depending on the year. The spirea aphid could be detected throughout the year during years when overall populations were high. Spirea aphid populations often peaked both in the spring and fall. Annual applications of Temik or Metasystox were ineffective in reducing aphid populations. Generally, all four Admire treatment regimes controlled aphids, although at least 2 annual Admire treatments per year were required to control the spirea aphid during some years.
R.C. Ebel, W.A. Dozier Jr., M.L. Nesbitt, N.R. McDaniel, A.A. Powell, A. W. Caylor, and W.R. Okie
There are a limited number of peach and nectarine cultivars available with chilling requirements that perform well in the Gulf Coast area of Alabama. A test planting of 40 peach and 13 nectarine cultivars was established in 1985 at the Gulf Coast Substation at Fairhope, Ala. The plot was prepared and trees grown according to commercial procedures. Blocks of four trees of each cultivar were planted on a 6 x 6-m spacing. Chill hours were calculated each year based on number of hours at or below 7.3 °C; starting from and including the first 10 consecutive days a total of 50 hours were accumulated to 15 Feb. Data collected included date of full bloom, first harvest date, and total yield. Fruit were measured or rated for skin color, attractiveness, firmness, stone freeness, pubescence, flesh color, dessert quality, shape, weight, percentage with split pits, and occurrence of malformed sutures and extended tips. All cultivars were evaluated for 9 years (1987–95). The best performing varieties are discussed.
J.M. Goatley Jr., A.J. Powell Jr., M. Barrett, and W.W. Witt
Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the basis for chlorsulfuron selectivity between Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. cv. Kenblue) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Rebel). Tall fescue absorbed and translocated more foliar-applied [14C]-labeled chlorsulfuron from the treated leaf than Kentucky bluegrass. The two species absorbed similar amounts of chlorsulfuron from nutrient solution into the roots, but tall fescue translocated more of the absorbed radioactivity to the shoots. Tall fescue metabolized chlorsulfuron in the shoots slightly more slowly than Kentucky bluegrass. Allof these factors apparently contributed to the higher tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass than of tall fescue to chlorsulfuron. Chemical name used: (2-chloro-N-[[4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5 -triazin-2-yl)amino]-carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide) (chlorsulfuron).
Howard F. Harrison Jr., D. Michael Jackson, Judy A. Thies, Richard L. Fery, and J. Powell Smith
Howard F. Harrison, Judy A. Thies, Richard L. Fery, and J. Powell Smith
A preliminary screening experiment was conducted to evaluate 47 cowpea [Vigna unguiculata, (L.) Walp.] genotypes for use as a weed-suppressing cover crop. Lines evaluated in this study included forage varieties, PI accessions, experimental breeding lines, and land races of unknown origin. Of these, 11 were selected for further testing on the basis of vigorous growth and weed-suppressing ability. In a field experiment repeated over 4 years, the selected genotypes were not different from the leading cover crop cultivar, `Iron Clay', in biomass production. Vigor ratings, vine growth ratings, and canopy widths of some genotypes exceeded those of `Iron Clay'. Vigor ratings and canopy measurements were efficient selection criteria that could be useful for breeding cover crop cowpea cultivars. All selections except an African cultivar, `Lalita', were highly resistant to southern root knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood], and the genotypes varied in seed size, photoperiod, and response to diseases.