Search Results

You are looking at 21 - 30 of 66 items for

  • Author or Editor: Terril A. Nell x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Chris A. Martini, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Terril A. Nell

Growth of Magnolia grandiflora Hort. `St. Mary' (southern magnolia) trees in containers spaced 120 cm on center was studied for 2 years. During the 1st year, trees were grown in container volumes of 10, 27, or 57 liter. At the start of the second growing season, trees were transplanted according to six container shifting treatments [10-liter containers (LC) both years, 10 to 27LC, 10 to 57LC, 27LC both years, 27 to 57LC, or 57LC both years]. The mean maximum temperature at the center location was 4.8 and 6.3C lower for the 57LC than for the 27 and 10LC, respectively. Height and caliper, measured at the end of 2 years, were” greatest for magnolias grown continuously in 27 or 57LC. Caliper was greater for trees shifted from 10LC to the larger containers compared with trees grown in 10LC both years. Trees grown in 10LC both years tended to have fewer roots growing in tbe outer 4 cm of the growing medium at the eastern, southern, and western exposures. During June and August of the 2nd year, high air and growth medium temperatures may have been limiting factors to carbon assimilation. Maintenance of adequate carbon assimilation fluxes and tree growth, when container walls are exposed to solar radiation, may require increasing the container volume. This procedure may be more important when daily maximum air temperatures are lower during late spring or early fall than in midsummer, because low solar angles insolate part of the container surface.

Free access

Lori A. Black, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett

Dormant-budded `Gloria' azaleas (Rhododendron sp.) were used to observe the effect of forcing irradiance, temperature, and fertilization on postproduction performance after flower bud dormancy had been broken. Four experiments were conducted during forcing, the treatments for each experiment were: Expt. 1, three forcing irradiances (200,460, and 900 μmol·m-2·s-1) and three postproduction irradiances (4, 8, and 16 μmol·m-z·s-1); Expt. 2, three forcing irradiances (320, 560, and 1110 μmol·m-2s-l); Expt. 3, three controlled day/night temperatures (18/16C, 23/21C, and 29/27C); Expt. 4, fertilizer applied for 7, 14, or 28 days at either 150 or 300 mg N/liter (12% nitrate, 8% ammoniacal) 20N-4.8P-16K soluble fertilizer at every watering, control plants did not receive fertilizer. Days to harvest (time until plants had eight individual open flowers) was less at the high forcing irradiances and temperatures and when fertilizer was applied during forcing. Flower color was less intense at the low forcing irradiance levels, high temperatures, and when duration of fertilization was prolonged and concentration was high. There were more open flower inflorescences at week 2 of postproduction at high forcing irradiance levels, but their number was not affected by forcing temperature or fertilization. Postproduction longevity was shorter when forcing was at 29/27C (day/night) and when plants were fertilized for 28 days at 300 mg N/liter, but was not affected by forcing or postproduction irradiance.

Free access

Barbara C. Poole, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett

Premature flower bud abscission imposes a serious limitation on longevity of potted Hibiscus in interiorscape situations, Ethylene is known to be one causative factor. Past research has suggested that carbohydrate depletion of buds may also be involved,

A series of experiments was conducted to examine the relationship between carbohydrate levels and ethylene sensitivity of flower buds under low irradiance levels. Two cultivars were used: `Pink Versicolor', which is very susceptible to bud abscission, and the more resistant `Vista', In the first experiment, plants were harvested twice weekly after placement in interiorscape rooms (8.5 μmol m-2 s-1 for 12 hrs per day; 26.5°C day/night) until all buds had abscissed. At each harvest, buds from four size groups were collected for analysis. In the second experiment, source/sink strength of buds was manipulated by selective daily removal of certain sized buds. Remaining buds were collected just prior to abscission for analysis. In two additional experiments, `Pink Versicolor' plants were treated with either silver thiosulfate or ethephon prior to placement in interiorscape rooms. Plants were harvested twice weekly and buds collected. For all experiments, bud dry wt, total soluble sugars and starch content were determined.

Free access

Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, and Terril A. Nell

The postharvest longevity of fresh-cut flowers is often limited by the accumulation of bacteria in vase water and flower stems. Aqueous chlorine dioxide is a strong biocide with potential application for sanitizing cut flower solutions. We evaluated the potential of chlorine dioxide to prevent the build-up of bacteria in vase water and extend the longevity of cut Matthiola incana `Ruby Red', Gypsophila paniculata `Crystal' and Gerbera jamesonii `Monarch' flowers. Fresh-cut flower stems were placed into sterile vases containing deionized water and either 0.0 or 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide. Flower vase life was then judged at 21 ± 0.5 °C and 40% to 60% relative humidity. Inclusion of 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide in vase water extended the longevity of Matthiola, Gypsophila and Gerbera flowers by 2.2, 3.5, and 3.4 days, respectively, relative to control flowers (i.e., 0 μL·L–1). Treatment with 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide reduced the build-up of aerobic bacteria in vase water for 6 to 9 days of vase life. For example, addition of 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide to Gerbera vase water reduced the number of bacteria that grew by 2.4- to 2.8-fold, as compared to control flower water. These results confirm the practical value of chlorine dioxide treatments to reduce the accumulation of bacteria in vase water and extend the display life of cut flowers.

Free access

Robert H. Stamps, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett

Leatherleaf fern [Rumohra adiantiformis (Forst.) Ching] fronds produced under a high-temperature regime (HTR, 30 day/25C night) grew faster and produced sori earlier than those in a low-temperature regime (LTR, 20 day/15C night). Abaxial diffusive conductance was lower for HTR-grown fronds. Light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn) and dark respiration were lower for HTR fronds, but light-saturated Pn efficiencies (chlorophyll basis); light compensation points; and soluble sugars, starch, and nonstructural carbohydrate levels were similar for the two regimes. Transpiration and water-use efficiency (mass basis) at light saturation were similar for fronds from both temperature treatments. Comparison of physiological characteristics of fronds from the two temperature regimes revealed no differences that might account for reduced postharvest longevity of fronds produced at the higher temperatures.

Free access

Richard Kent Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell

Treatments were cultivar, uniconazole concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8ppm), and time between dip and placement under mist (0, 10, or 60 minutes). Unrooted chrysanthemum cuttings of cultivars `Tara' and `Boaldi' were dipped in uniconazole solutions for 10 seconds. Data were taken 16 days after treatment. A quadratic relationship was found for the interaction between concentration and cultivar. `Tara': (y = 6.7277-1.532(x) + 0.119409(x2)) and `Boaldi': (y= 6.4676-0.884(x)+0.060020(x 2). Time had no significant interaction with either cultivar or uniconazole concentration.

In a second study, with uniconazole concentrations and storage time (10 minutes or 12 hours), main effects and the cultivar concentration interaction were significant.

Free access

Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, and Terril A. Nell

Exposure to 0.1, 1.0, or 10 μL·L−1 ethylene for 4 days at 21 °C reduced the display life of 17 commonly traded potted foliage plant genotypes (Aglaonema ‘Mary Ann’, Anthurium scherzerianum ‘Red Hot’ and ‘White Gemini’, Aphelandra squarrosa ‘Dania’, Chlorophytum comosum ‘Hawaiian’, Codiaeum variegatum pictum ‘Petra’, Dieffenbachia maculata ‘Carina’, Dracaena marginata ‘Bicolor’ and ‘Magenta’, Euphorbia milii ‘Gaia’, Euphorbia splendens ‘Short and Sweet’, Ficus benjamina, Polyscias fruticosa ‘Castor’, Radermachera sinica ‘China Doll’, Schefflera elegantissima ‘Gemini’, Schefflera arboricola ‘Gold Capella’, Spathiphyllum ‘Ty's Pride’). Ethylene treatment hastened leaf and bract abscission or senescence. The responsiveness of plants to ethylene varied considerably; six genotypes were sensitive to 0.1 μL·L−1 ethylene, whereas three genotypes required exposure to 10 μL·L−1 ethylene to trigger visible injury. Four genotypes (Asplenium nidus, Chamaedorea elegans ‘Neathe Bella’, Hedera helix ‘Chicago’, Syngonium podophyllum ‘White Butterfly’) included in our study were insensitive to ethylene. Treating Aglaonema ‘Mary Ann’, Polyscias fruticosa ‘Castor’, and Schefflera arboricola ‘Gold Capella’ plants with 0.9 μL·L−1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, provided as EthylBloc™), a gaseous ethylene-binding inhibitor, for 4 to 5 h at 21 °C reduced the deleterious effects of ethylene. The release of 1-MCP from two sachets containing EthylBloc™ into a single shipping box also protected Aphelandra squarrosa ‘Dania’, Euphorbia milii ‘Gaia’, Polyscias fruticosa ‘Elegans’, and Schefflera arboricola ‘Gold Capella’ plants from ethylene injury after simulated transport. Our data reveal the genetic variation in ethylene sensitivity among potted foliage plants and highlight genotypes that benefit from 1-MCP treatment.

Free access

Terril A. Nell, James E. Barrett, and Ria T. Leonard

Free access

Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, and Terril A. Nell

The vase life of many cut flowers is often limited by bacterial occlusion of stem bases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial agent, aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), to extend the longevity of cut Gerbera flowers by reducing the number of bacteria in vase water. Commercially mature and freshly cut Gerbera jamesonii `Monarck' flowers were placed into clean vases containing deionized water and 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 μL·L-1 ClO2. Stems were then maintained in solutions at 21 ± 0.5 °C and 42 ± 11% relative humidity until the end of vase life. Inclusion of 2, 5, and 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 in vase water had beneficial effects on flower longevity. For instance, treatment with 5 and 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 extended flower longevity by 1.4-fold or 3.7 days, as compared to control flowers (0 μL·L-1 ClO2). In contrast, exposure to the higher concentrations of 20 and 50 μL·L-1 ClO2 did not extend flower vase life. Relative to control flowers, treatment with 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 delayed the onset of detectable bacterial colonization of vase solutions from day 3 to day 6 of vase life. However, this ClO2 treatment did not reduce the number of bacteria that subsequently accumulated in vase water as compared to control flowers. Treatment with 10 μL·L-1 ClO2 also increased rates of solution uptake by stems and reduced the loss of flower fresh weight over time. These results highlight the potential use of ClO2 treatments to extend the postharvest longevity of Gerbera flowers.

Free access

Richard K. Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, and Terril A. Nell

Effects of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and temperature on quantitative axillary budbreak and elongation of pinched chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] plants were studied in three experiments. In Expt. 1, 12 commercial cultivars were compared under fall and spring environmental conditions. Spring increases in lateral shoot counts were attributable to increased PPF and air temperature. Cultivars varied from 0 to 12 lateral branches per pinched plant and by as much as 60% between seasons. There was a linear relationship between lateral branches >5 cm at 3 weeks after pinching and final branch count (y = 0.407 + 0.914(x), r 2 = 0.92). In Expt. 2, air was at 20 or 25C and the root zone was maintained at 5, 0, or –5C relative to air temperature. With air at 20C, lateral branch counts (3 weeks after pinch) declined by ≤50% with the medium at 15C relative to 25C. At 25C, lateral branch count was lower with medium at 30C than at 20C. Cultivars differed in their response to the treatments. Experiment 3 compared the interactions among temperature, PPF, and cultivar on lateral branch count. Depending on cultivar, the count increased the higher the PPF between 400 and 1400 μmol·m–2·s–1. Air temperature had no effect on lateral branch count. PPF had a stronger effect on lateral branch count than air temperature, and cultivars differed in their response.