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S.R. Drake, D.C. Elfving, and T.A. Eisele

Quality of `Cripps Pink' apples (Malu × domestica) harvested at a starch index of 2 and 4 was evaluated over three crop seasons. Apple quality was evaluated after harvest and after regular atmosphere (RA) and controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage at 1% O2 and 1% CO2, 1% O2 and 3% CO2, and 1% O2 and 5% CO2 (1 year only) at 1 ºC (33 to 34 ºF). Over three seasons, commercially acceptable fruit quality was achieved on either harvest date following both long-term RA and CA storage. Fruit size was not different between apples harvested at a starch index of 2 or 4. Firmness and acids remained at acceptable levels [62 N (14 lb) and ≥0.50%, respectively] in `Cripps Pink' apples regardless of maturity, storage time or storage conditions. Delaying harvest after a starch index of 2 was achieved increased soluble solids concentration (SSC), SSC to TA (titratable acidity) ratio, peel color, malic acid and citric acid concentrations but decreased fructose content. `Cripps Pink' apples responded well to CA storage conditions of 1% O2 with 1% or 3% CO2, but displayed significant firmness loss and greatly increased internal breakdown at 1% O2 and 5% CO2 at 1 ºC.

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K.C. Shellie, L.G. Neven, and S.R. Drake

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium `Bing') exposed to 113 or 117 °F (45 or 47 °C) in an atmosphere of 1% oxygen with 15% carbon dioxide (balance nitrogen) were heated to a maximum center temperature of 112 or 115 °F (44 or 46 °C) in 41 or 27 min, respectively. Heated cherries had similar incidence of pitting and decay, and similar preference ratings after 14 days of storage at 34 °F (1 °C) as nonheated or methyl bromide fumigated fruit. Heated cherries and methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less firm after 14 days of cold storage than nonheated, control fruit. The stems of methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less green than heated or nonheated cherries. Cherries exposed to 113 °F had lower titratable acidity than nonheated cherries, fumigated cherries, or cherries exposed to 117 °F. Cherry quality after 14 days of cold storage was not affected by hydrocooling before heating (5 min in water at 34 °F) or by method of cooling after heating (hydrocooling, forced air cooling, or static air cooling). Cherries stored for 14 days at 34 °F in 6% oxygen with 17% carbon dioxide (balance nitrogen) had similar market quality as cherries stored in air at 34 °F. Results suggest that `Bing' sweet cherry can tolerate heating in an atmosphere of low oxygen containing elevated carbon dioxide at doses that may provide quarantine security against codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata).

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W. J. Clore, G. H. Carter, and S. R. Drake

Abstract

Factors determined to have a pronounced effect on shear-press peak-force values of asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. included sample size, spear diameter, length of green, and preharvest temperature. Shear-press values were greater following periods of cold weather in early spring. Larger diameter spears had lower peak-force values than smaller spears, indicating that larger spears are more tender than smaller spears. The number and diameter of spears produced by a particular cultivar, and not differences between cultivars, were the characteristics observed to influence shear-press values. Shear-press max peak-force values correlated well with subjective and objective determinations of asparagus fiber.

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S. R. Drake and E. L. Proebsting Jr.

Abstract

Cherries pitted prior to canning or treated with daminozide had lower drained weights, more total anthocyanin, more turbid syrup, darker Agtron red values, and were softer than nonpitted or nontreated cherries. USDA color grade was higher, but USDA character grade was reduced when cherries were pitted or treated with daminozide. CaCl2 applied as either a 3% dip prior to pitting or as a 1% addition to the syrup increased the firmness, decreased the turbidity of the syrup of pitted and nonpitted cherries, and reduced the number of split fruit in nonpitted cherries. CaCl2 improved the USDA character grade of pitted and nonpitted cherries, and daminozide-treated cherries. Delaying harvest by 8 days reduced drained weight losses, increased total anthocyanin content, pH and soluble solids, and resulted in a darker red canned cherry as measured by the Agtron. CaCl2 compensated for the reduced USDA scores for character caused by pitting or daminozide, increasing character to equal that of nonpitted or nontreated, respectively. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (Daminozide).

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S. R. Drake, J. W. Nelson, and T. K. Toyama

Abstract

Unpeeled and peeled ‘Rival’ and ‘Tilton’ apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) were canned at 2 levels of vacuum and headspace. Differences in the canned product were significant between cultivar, peeling treatment and vacuum in the drained weights, dissolved Sn content of the syrup, corrosion of the cans and clearness of the syrup. ‘Rival’ apricots had less drained weight loss, reduced amounts of Sn, less visual corrosion, and a clearer syrup than ‘Tilton’ apricots. Peeling the apricots increased drained weight loss and Sn content, and reduced the clearness of the syrup. Low vacuum increased Sn content, visual corrosion and clearness of the syrup, and reduced drained weight loss.

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J.D. Hansen, M.L. Heidt, M.A. Watkins, S.R. Drake, J. Tang, and S. Wang

Efficacy of using radio frequency (RF) at 27.12 MHz was evaluated as a postharvest quarantine treatment against fifth instars of the codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)], in apples (Malus sylvestris). Tests under the given conditions demonstrated that the energy fields between the RF unit's electrodes were neither predictable nor uniform. Moving fruit submerged in water during RF exposure may improve uniformity, but pulp temperatures varied considerably among fruit, among sites on the same fruit, and at different depths within the same site. As a result of these inconsistencies, quarantine efficacy was not obtained either using a range of final average temperatures from 40 to 68 °C (104.0 to 154.4 °F) or at holding times up to 20 minutes. We concluded it would be difficult to obtain the appropriate parameters for treatment efficacy and fruit quality maintenance using this technology under these conditions.

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J.D. Hansen, M.L. Heidt, M.A. Watkins, S.R. Drake, J. Tang, and S. Wang

Quarantine regulations require domestic sweet cherries (Prunus avium) exported to Japan to be treated to control codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)]. The current procedure, methyl bromide fumigation, may be discontinued because of health, safety, and environmental concerns. To examine a potential alternative method, `Bing' sweet cherries were each infested with a codling moth larva, submerged in a 38 °C water bath for 6 minutes pretreatment, then exposed to various temperatures generated by radio frequency and held at that temperature for different times: 50 °C for 6 minutes, 51.6 °C for 4 minutes, 53.3 °C for 0.5 minutes, and 54.4 °C for 0.5 minutes. Insect mortality was evaluated 24 hours after treatment and fruit quality was evaluated after treatment and after 7 and 14 days of storage at 1 °C. No larvae survived at the 50 and 51.6 °C treatments. Fruit color of non-infested cherries was darkened as temperature increased. Stem color was severely impacted after 7 days of storage, even in a warm water bath of 38 °C for 6 minutes, as was fruit firmness at the same treatment. Fruit quality loss increased after 14 days of storage, compared to after 7 days of storage. The amount of pitting and bruising of cherries increased with temperature and again this increase was more evident after 14 days of storage.

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S. R. Drake, E. L. Proebsting Jr., and S. E. Spayd

Abstract

Highly significant correlations were obtained for reflectance color (Agtron) with anthocyanin content in both fresh and canned dark sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) and also for both reflectance color and anthocyanin content with subjective USDA color. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and a soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio were not good indicators of color development in sweet cherries. Reflectance color could be used to predict USDA color from fresh or canned dark sweet cherries.

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E. L. Proebsting, S. R. Drake, and R. G. Evans

Abstract

‘Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) on seedling rootstock were grown with trickle and sprinkler irrigation, both operated at high frequency of irrigation (daily). Trees with trickle irrigation developed lower leaf water potentials and produced less vegetative growth than trees with sprinkler irrigation, but fruit and productivity were similar. Apples from the trickle-irrigated trees had less water content and higher soluble solids than those from sprinkler-irrigated trees. Titratable acidity tended to be lower and both red color in ‘Delicious’ and yellow color in ‘Golden Delicious’ tended to be higher in fruit from trickle-irrigated trees than from sprinkled trees; firmness at harvest was similar regardless of irrigation procedure. Storage life was not influenced consistently by irrigation. Where differences did occur, the fruit from trickle-irrigated trees was softer after storage. Changes in fruit quality similar to those observed in trickle-irrigated trees were produced by imposing, through high frequency deficit irrigation with sprinklers, similar moisture deficits on apple trees, as measured by leaf water potential.

Open access

S. R. Drake, J. W. Nelson, and J. R. Powers

Abstract

Type of storage influenced yield and quality of applesauce. The yield of applesauce from controlled atmosphere (CA) storage was significantly less than from cold stored apples. Applesauce color was superior when the sauce was made from CA stored apples. Increased cooking time reduced total sauce yield but had no effect on yield at the pulper-finisher or on the color of the sauce. The addition of acid to the applesauce improved color. Acid addition had a stronger influence on the applesauce color of cold stored apples than of CA fruit. The addition of extra water beyond 30% by weight reduced quality regardless of storage type, cook time or addition of acid.