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Kay Oakley, Mary Witt, and Robert L. Geneve

An interactive computer version of a traditional Extension educational publication was developed for delivery over the Internet. Large Trees for Kentucky Landscapes is a 40-page publication describing suggested species adapted to Kentucky conditions. It is illustrated with numerous color photographs. This type of Extension publication has a limited distribution because it is relatively expensive to publish. The digital version of this publication allows for inclusion of additional information and illustrations. It was designed to be interactive with the user selecting the species and the information about that species from a screen menu. The user also has the option to print a one page informational sheet on that species. The initial audience for this digital version of the publication is the county Extension agent and Division of Forestry personnel, but it may also be useful at retail horticultural outlets.

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Tina Wilson, Robert Geneve, and Brent Rowell

Mutant endosperm associated with shrunken-2 sweet corn possesses a high osmotic potential that increases the rate of imbibition. Membrane damage associated with the rapid influx of water during imbibition can play a role in the poor emergence and seedling vigor associated with sweet corn germination. Film-coating as a seed treatment has been used to improve germination and vigor in sweet corn. This improvement may be associated with alterations in the kinetics of imbibition. Two seed lots of shrunken-2 sweet corn, low-vigor `Even Sweeter' and high vigor `Sugar Bowl', were treated with a polymer film-coating and evaluated for differences in water uptake. Imbibition curves were established for nontreated and film-coated seeds. Seeds were weighed every hour for 6 hours and showed a significant difference between the two treatments in fresh weight for both cultivars. This pattern continues throughout the imbibition phase of germination and continues into the lag period. Bulk conductivity tests resulted in no significant mean difference between untreated and film treated seeds after 24 hours. Film treatment assumes characteristics of a hydrophilic polymer. Electrolyte leakage is not reduced and imbibition rate increases by 18% for both varieties of film-coated seeds.

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Robert L. Geneve and Sharon T. Kester

Early seedling growth rate can be used to estimate seed vigor for small-seeded vegetable and flower seeds. However, hand measurement of small seedlings is tedious and difficult to reproduce among analysts. Computer-aided analysis digital images of seedlings should improve accuracy and reproducibility. A flat-bed scanner fitted with base and top lighting provided high resolution images of even small-seeded species like petunia [Petunia ×hybrida `Blue Picotee' (Hort) Vilm.] and lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum `Mariachi Pure White' (Raf.) Shinn]. Uniform lighting was provided and images were captured and analyzed in less than 2 minutes. A clear, cellulose film was used as the germination substrate in petri dish germination assays to facilitate capturing images with a flat-bed scanner. The transparent medium permitted seedlings to be imaged without removal from the petri dish and also allowed for repeated measures of the same seedlings in order to calculate growth rate. Six species evaluated in this study included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., var. Botrytis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `New Yorker'), pepper (Capsicum annuum L. `North Star'), impatiens [Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. `Impact Lavender'], vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. `Little Bright Eye'], and marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Little Devil Flame'). For germination and early seedling growth, the cellulose film compared favorably with other standard germination media (blue blotter and germination paper) for five of the six species tested. Computer analysis of seedling length was possible for all six species and was statistically similar to hand measurements averaged for three analysts.

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Robert L. Geneve and Mary L. Witt

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Liliek Utami, Robert G Anderson, Robert L Geneve, and Sharon Kester

Warm season annual flowers were trialed as field grown cutflowers in the summer of 1989. Plants were transplanted to the field in early or late May and grown at densities of 40 plants m-2 in beds with black plastic mulch, trickle irrigation and support wires. Tall ageratum, `Horizon Blue'., plants were harvested throughout the summer with total yields of 290 stems m-2with stem lengths over 36 cm long. Stem lengths increased significantly over the summer; 40% of the stems harvested in September were over 56 cm long. Spray asters, `Matsumoto Blue', Matsumoto Red' and `Serene Red', were harvested eight weeks after transplanting with yields of 20 to 30 stems m-2; 60% of the stems were 36-45 cm long and 40% were 46-55 cm long. Tall, crested celosia, `Red Chief', `Gold Chief' and `Fire Chief', plants were harvested 8 weeks after transplanting with yields of 45 stems m-2 over 60% of the stems were 45 cm long or longer. Godetia, `Grace Red' and `Grace Salmon', plants sown March 3 and planted in the field April 10, performed well; later plantings were much less successful. Plants were planted at a density of 5 m-2 and produced 25 to 50 flower stems per plant; stem lengths were 30 to 38 cm long.

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Liliek Utami, Robert G. Anderson, Robert L. Geneve, and Sharon Kester

Satin flower (Clarkia amoena ssp. whineyi: syn. Godetia whitneyi) is a cool temperature, high light plant grown as a cutflower in Japan, Europe and California. In preliminary greenhouse cutflower and pot plant trials, satin flower plants flowered in 10-11 weeks when grown under 24hr supplemental HID lighting compared to 20-22 weeks under ambient winter conditions. In Sept. and Nov. 1989, satin flower plants were treated with the following supplemental and photoperiodic lighting treatments ambient light; SD (ambient day, black cloth 1600 to 800 HR); LD (ambient day, incandescent light 1600 to 400 HR, 5 μmol s-1 m-2); SD-SPL (ambient day supplemented with 100 μmol s-1m-2 HPS, black cloth 1600 to 800 HR); LD-SPL (ambient day supplemented with 100 μmol s-1m-2 800 to 400 HR), Node number and days to flowering were significantly different between the treatments. Plants grown under LD-SPL flowered in 10 weeks and had 32 nodes, LD -13 weeks and 37 nodes (weak, spindly, few flowers), SD-SPL - 17 weeks and 70 nodes, SD - 21 weeks and 75 nodes. Strategies for supplemental lighting for greenhouse cutflower production will be discussed.

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Robert L. Geneve, Wesley P. Hackett, and Bert T. Swanson

Exogenous ethylene could not substitute for NAA to induce adventitious root initiation in juvenile petiole explants of English ivy (Hedera helix L.), indicating that the action of auxin-stimulated root initiation was not directly mediated through ethylene production. Mature petioles did not initiate roots under any auxin or ethylene treatment combination. Ethephon or ACC supplied at 50 or 100 μm was inhibitory to NAA-induced root initiation in juvenile petioles. The pattern of ethylene production stimulated by NAA application was significantly different in juvenile and mature petioles. Ethylene evolution by juvenile petioles declined to near control levels during from 6 to 12 days after NAA application. Reduction in ethylene production was due to reduced availability of ACC in juvenile petioles. Mature petioles continued to produce ethylene at elevated levels throughout the course of the experiment. Ethylene does not appear to play a significant role in the differential root initiation response of juvenile and mature petioles treated with NAA. However, ethylene appeared to have an inhibitory effect during root elongation stages of adventitious root development in juvenile petioles. Chemical names used: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Sheri B. Crabtree, Kirk W. Pomper, and Robert L. Geneve

The North American pawpaw [Asiminatriloba (L.) Dunal] is a tree fruit native to the eastern and midwestern areas of the United States. The fruit has a rich, unique flavor and pawpaw has great potential as a new fruit crop. Kentucky State University (KSU) in Frankfort is the site for the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) for Asimina species, containing over 1700 accessions from 17 different states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity in reproductive characteristics for pawpaw accessions in the KSU-USDA repository orchard from six geographic regions (Ind.-site 1, Ind.-site 2, Ky., Md., N.Y., and W.Va.). Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004 for trunk cross-sectional area, total number of flowers, length of flowering, flowering peak, fruit set, total number of clusters, total number of fruit, number of fruit per cluster, average fruit weight, yield, yield efficiency, length of harvest, harvest peak, and growing degree days required for ripening. Significant differences in characteristics were found within and among populations for the various regions. Accessions from Kentucky and West Virginia had the latest flowering peaks. Trees from Maryland had the highest fruit weight in 2002, whereas the West Virginia population produced the largest fruit in 2004. The New York accessions consistently had the latest harvest peak and required the fewest growing degree days for ripening. Correlations were also found between several vegetative and reproductive characteristics. This study suggests that a significant level of reproductive diversity exists within KSU's repository collection that could be used in future breeding strategies for cultivar improvement.

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Myra Stafford, Robert L. Geneve, and Jack W. Buxton

This study evaluated the effect of container shape and copper hydroxide on root and shoot development of marigold (Tagetes patula `Little Devil Flame') seedlings. Containers were modified in shape and volume by gluing triangular polycarbonate inserts vertically onto sides of the container. The inserts were either painted with copper or not painted. Inserts decreased container volumes (no insert = 480 cm3, two inserts = 340 cm3, and four inserts = 200 cm3). After 38 days the seedling roots were scanned for computer analysis, and leaf area and dry weights were determined. Copper effectively prevented roots from growing in contact with copper treated surfaces. Shoot dry weight and leaf area were greater with no inserts, but if inserts were treated with copper the shoot dry weight and leaf area were greater. Root dry weight was reduced 7%–10 % with two inserts and 20% with four inserts compared to no inserts. Copper treated inserts reduced the dry weight further. However, at the insert interface, root length was increased between 15%–20% by all copper treatments, with the greatest increase in the four-insert treatment.

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Robert L. Geneve, Wesley P. Hackett, and Bert T. Swanson

Several inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and action, as well as an atmospheric ethylene scrubber, were used to investigate the role of ethylene in adventitious root initiation in de-bladed petioles from the juvenile and mature phase of English ivy (Hedera helix L.). Induction of root primordia required NAA regardless of the inhibitor treatment. Difficult-to-root mature petioles have been shown to produce higher amounts of ethylene than easy-to-root juvenile petioles. However, mature petioles failed to root under any combination of NAA and inhibitor treatment, indicating that the continued evolution of ethylene in NAA-treated mature petioles was not responsible for the absence of a rooting response. Root initiation in juvenile petioles was not affected by treatment with the ethylene action inhibitors STS and NDE, nor by removal of atmospheric ethylene with KMnO. Inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis using AVG or AOA reduced root initiation in juvenile petioles, but this response was not well-correlated to the observed reduction in ethylene evolution. The inhibitory action of AVG could not be reversed by the addition of ethylene gas or ACC, which indicated that AVG could be acting through a mechanism other than the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis. Chemical names used: 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA); l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC); silver thiosulfate (STS); 2,5-norbornadiene (NDE); aminoethyoxyvinyl-glycine (AVG); aminooxyacetic acid (AOA).