Media and nutrient variables were investigated to develop methods of reducing the incidence and severity of fusarium crown rot incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker (FORL), a disease problem of current importance with tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Root-dip inoculated seedlings were transplanted into trays of a 1 Canadian peat: 1 vermiculite medium that had been prepared with factorial combinations of CaCO, (0.75 or 3.0 kg·m), Ca(NO) or (NH) SO (each at 225 mg N/liter), and NaCl at 0 or 2000 mg Na/liter as the experimental treatments. Crown rot was more severe with the lower CaCO rate, with (NH) SO, and supplemental NaCI. Data on fresh weight of seedlings expressed as percentage values relative to the noninoculated controls supported observations on disease severity.
S.S. Woltz, J.P. Jones, and J.W. Scott
J.H.M. Barten, J.W. Scott, and R.G. Gardner
Pointed blossom-end morphology may be used to reduce blossom-end scar size in large-fruited, fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The usefulness of this characteristic has been limited due to persistence of pointedness on mature fruit, resulting in postharvest bruising, and to close association of pointedness with leaf curl, which may increase foliar disease problems. The inheritance of pointedness in three breeding lines (NC 140, Fla 890559-24, and Fla 894413-1) and four accessions with previously described blossom-end morphology genes [LA 2-5 with persistent style (pst), LA 986 with beaky (bk), LA 1787 with beaky-2 (Bk-2), and LA 2353 with nipple tip (n)] was investigated. In F1 s and F2s of crosses with wild types, some pointedness was observed in heterozygotes, but the level of expression was generally close to wild type expression, except for LA 986. Consequently, Bk-2 in LA 1787 was renamed bk-2. F1 complementation tests were difficult to interpret. Wild types segregated in F2s of all complementation crosses, except for LA 986 × LA 2-5, a result indicating the presence of the same gene in these two accessions. Three new nipple-tip genes were named; n-2 in NC 140, n-3 in Fla 890559-24, and n-4 in Fla 894413-1. None of the seven accessions tested had significant leaf curl. Early identification of mutant plants by the shape of the stylar base in flowers at anthesis was reliable only for bk. Various blossom-end morphology genes may be backcrossed into otherwise desirable breeding lines, and complementing parents may be intercrossed to obtain optimal smoothness in the hybrid without undesirable pointed mature hybrid fruit.
J.W. Scott, J.B. Jones, and G.C. Somodi
Hawaii 7981 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), resistant to race T3 of the bacterial spot pathogen [Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye], was crossed to the susceptible tomato inbred, Fla. 7060, and subsequently F2 and backcross seed were obtained. These generations were planted in the field, inoculated with the race T3 pathogen and evaluated for disease severity over two summer seasons. Data were tested for goodness-of-fit to a model based on control by the incompletely dominant gene Xv3 that confers hypersensitivity. The F1 was intermediate in disease severity to the parents for both seasons. When data were combined over both seasons, the backcrosses fit the expected 1:1 ratios although each deviated from the expected ratio in one of the 2 years tested. The F2 did not fit the expected 1:2:1 ratio in either year or when data from the two years were combined due to a deficiency of resistant plants. Thirty-three F2 plants representing an array of disease severities and hypersensitivity reactions were selected in the second season and their F3 progeny were inoculated and evaluated for disease severity. Hawaii 7981 was significantly more resistant than the 12 most resistant F3 selections even though all expressed hypersensitivity. A hypersensitive F3 with intermediate field resistance was crossed to Hawaii 7981 and subsequently, F2 and backcross generations were obtained. These generations were field inoculated with the race T3 pathogen and evaluated for disease severity. Hawaii 7981 was significantly more resistant than the F3 parent as in the previous year. The data did not fit an additive-dominance model and epistatic interactions were significant. Thus, it appears that field resistance to race T3 of bacterial spot found in Hawaii 7981 is conferred quantitatively by Xv3 and other resistance genes. Breeding implications are discussed.
J.W. Scott and J.B. Jones
Hawaii 7998 (foliage resistant to bacterial spot) was crossed with ‘Walter’ (susceptible) and F1, backcross, and F2 generations were derived. These genotypes were grown in the field at Bradenton, Fla. in the summers of 1984 and 1985 and inoculated with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, the incitant of bacterial spot. Disease severity for respective genotypes was similar both years, although somewhat greater in 1985. Disease severity in the F1 was intermediate to the parents, but slightly skewed toward resistance both years. The percentage of F2 plants with resistance comparable to Hawaii 7988 was 9.6% in 1984 and 4.6% in 1985. There was no evidence of cytoplasmic inheritance from three sets of reciprocal crosses tested in 1985. The data fit an additive-dominance genetic model, but dominance variance was negative both years, which indicates a small or negligible dominance effect. The negative dominance variance resulted in biased estimates of additive variance, narrow-sense heritability, and the number of effective factors. Nevertheless, narrow-sense heritability was moderate to high. When incorporating this resistance into new genetic backgrounds, we suggest that a modified backcrossing scheme with rigorous disease screening be used to obtain plants from homozygous resistant BCF3 lines before crossing.
N. Georgelis, J.W. Scott, and E.A. Baldwin
Small-fruited cherry tomato accession PI 270248 [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) A. Gray] with high fruit sugars was crossed to large-fruited inbred line Fla.7833-1-1-1 (7833) (L. esculentum) that had normal (low) fruit sugars. The F1 was crossed to PI 270248 and 7833 to obtain BCP1 and BCP2, respectively, and self-pollinated to obtain F2 seed. The resulting population was used to study the inheritance of high sugars from PI 270248. Continuous sugar level frequency distributions of BCP1, BCP2, and F2 suggest that the trait is under polygenic control. Additive variation was significant, but dominance variation was not. There was a heterozygote × heterozygote type of epistasis present that likely caused the F1 sugar level to skew nearly to the level of the high sugar parent. The F2 mean sugar level was lower than the midparent level. Broad-sense heritability was 0.86. There was a significant line × season (fall, spring) interaction where lines with higher sugars were affected more by seasons than lines with lower sugars. Sugar level, in general, was higher in spring. Higher solar radiation in spring than in fall may explain the sugar level difference between the seasons.
Stenhen F. Klauer, J. Scott Cameron, and Paul W. Foote
Results from previous cultural and physiological studies of red raspberry suggest that primocanes compete with floricanes for light, nutrients and/or photoassimilates. This study was undertaken to determine whether this competition might be reflected in the actual translocation of photoassimilates between the two types of canes. In 1993, pairs of greenhouse grown, potted red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plants contaming one or two floricanes and numerous primocanes were labeled with 14CO2 on four dates corresponding with early anthesis, green fruit, red fruit and post fruit maturity stages of the growing season. For each experiment, either a floricane or a primocane was exposed to 92.5μCi 14CO2 within a sealed bag. After 24 hours, the bag was removed and the presence of label was monitored for up to 11 days. Activity was determined using liquid scintillation. At all developmental stages 14C moved from the labeled floricane to primocanes that were from 2.5 cm to 1.5 m tall and to the roots. Movement was quickest and relatively greatest at early anthesis, dccreascd during fruiting, and was still occuring at 2 months after fruit maturity. Small amounts of label were detected in roots of labeled primocanes at all stages, but trace amounts were present in fruit and other primocanes only at post fruit maturity.
Paul W. Foote, J. Scott Cameron, and Stephen F. Klauer
Leaf-area based CO2 assimilation rate (ALA as an Indicator of genotypic differences in photosynthetic capacity is questioned on the basis of correlations found between ALA and specific leaf weight and small leaf size. To address this question of photosynthetic apparatus concentration In F. chiloensis genotypes differing significantly in ALA, visual image analysis software was used to quantify a number of leaf anatomy parameters. In 1991 and 1992, after gas exchange measurements in the field, leaf tissue was prepared In cross-sections and leaf clearings for light microscopy. Cross-sections were used to measure internal anatomical parameters and clearings for vein and stomatal densities.
Analysis of variance of 1991\92 measurements showed significant genotypic variation for leaf veination, leaf thickness, palisade cell length, cross-sectional area In mesophyll tissue and internal air space. Differences in stomatal density were observed in 1991. None of the anatomical parameters measured were correlated with ALA. This suggests that the concentration of physical apparatus Is not the major source of variation In ALA among these eight genotypes.
Aliya Momotaz, Jay W. Scott, and David J. Schuster
Solanum habrochaites S. Knapp and D.M. Spooner accession LA1777 have reported resistance to the sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). An interspecific F2 population of 171 plants between tomato [Solanum lycopersicum L. (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)] and LA1777 was bioassayed against adult SPWF in a greenhouse using clip cages. A selective genotyping analysis was used with 11 resistant and 10 susceptible plants to locate resistance genes by testing them with molecular markers spanning most of the tomato genome at about 10-cM intervals. Markers in four regions were found to be associated with resistance, where three of them showed significantly strong associations and one showed a weak association through chi-square and analyses of variance. However, through quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using molecular markers, all four regions were identified as major QTLs with logarithm of odds (LOD) values of 4.87 to 5.95. The four QTLs were identified near the markers TG313 on chromosome 10, C2_At2g41680 on chromosome 9, TG523/T0408 on chromosome 11, and TG400/cLEG-37-G17 on chromosome 11. Multiple regression analysis produced similar results as above with fixed effects of single loci as well as interaction among some of the QTLs.
Yuanfu Ji, John W. Scott, and David J. Schuster
The whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a major pathogen of tomatoes grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several genes of different origins conferring resistance to TYLCV have been introgressed to the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), including the single dominant gene, Ty-2, that originated from S. habrochiates and was previously mapped to a 19-cM region on the long arm of chromosome 11 delimited by restriction fragment length polymorphism markers TG36 and TG393. In the present study, we confirmed the dominant inheritance of the Ty-2 gene from TYLCV evaluation and molecular marker analysis of an F2 segregating population derived from a commercial hybrid that carries the Ty-2 gene. Evaluating recombinants recovered from the F2 progeny for TYLCV resistance localized the Ty-2 gene to a marker interval of 5.5 cM between C2_At1g07960 (82.5 cM) and C2_At4g32930 (88 cM). Additional recombinants were identified for the target region carrying the Ty-2 gene. TYLCV evaluation of the progeny from these recombinants further delimited the Ty-2 gene to a 4.5-cM interval between C2_At1g07960 (82.5 cM) and cLEN-11-F24 (87 cM). The smaller introgressions no longer include the fusarium wilt race 2 resistance locus (I-2), which should facilitate combining the two resistance genes in cis configuration. The polymerase chain reaction-based markers developed from the present study can be used to precisely monitor the introgression of the Ty-2 gene, thus offering the opportunity to pyramid TYLCV resistance genes from different sources as well as resistance genes for other pathogens into elite tomato cultivars.
M.A. Canady, M.R. Stevens, and J.W. Scott
Nineteen interspecific hybrid breeding lines were tested for resistance to a TSWV isolate using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to check for presence of the virus after inoculation. These lines were all BC1F6 lines derived from L. esculentum crosses with seven L. chilense accessions. All of these lines had been selected for high tolerance/resistance to tomato mottle virus (ToMoV), a geminivirus [Scott et al., Bemisia 1995: Taxonomy, Biology, Damage Control and Management 30: 357–367 (1996)]. The initial TSWV screening indicated that eight of the 19 original lines had “possible” TSWV resistance. Seed from these selected eight lines were then planted and inoculated with TSWV ≈3 weeks after emergence. Three weeks later, ELISA results indicated that all plants from all lines were infected with TSWV. However, none of the plants from Y118 (derived from the LA 1938 cross) showed visual TSWV symptoms. The Y118-derived plants were allowed to grow for several months, and at no time developed significant visual symptoms of the virus. The consistent lack of TSWV symptoms prompted a second ELISA test on the Y118 plants, and the results indicated the plants were completely free of TSWV. Further tests were then initiated with F2 (L. esculentum × Y118) seed, and results indicate a single dominant gene is responsible for TSWV resistance. Data from this segregating population, including a molecular marker study which screened 800 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers, will be presented. Approximately two to five RAPD primers are possibly linked to TSWV resistance.