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Fumiomi Takeda and Michael Wisniewski

Abstract

Axillary buds on lateral branches of ‘Black Satin’ and ‘Hull Thornless’ thornless blackberries (Rubus sp.) were examined from September to May in 1984–1985 and 1986–1987, and in Spring 1988. Initial inflorescence development in ‘Black Satin’ was evident in October; however, most buds remained vegetative until January. Perianth primordia became distinct around the terminal floral apex in some buds in late February to early March. Buds sampled from lateral branches at the top portion of plants were more advanced than buds from the bottom portion at several sampling dates. Axillary buds of ‘Hull Thornless’, in contrast, remained vegetative in all floricane portions until late March. Subsequent developmental rates were rapid and uniform. Once the terminal flower appeared, the most basal floral apex in the primary (A1) axis was next to develop. Remaining floral apices along the axis developed sequentially in an acropetal direction. Neither uniformity and time of bud initiation nor subsequent rate of development appeared to affect the length of bloom period.

Open access

Fumiomi Takeda and Julian C. Crane

Abstract

Neither abscisic acid (ABA) levels in developing kernels nor in the developing inflorescence buds themselves were found to be related to abscission of inflorescence buds and consequent alternate bearing in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

Open access

Fumiomi Takeda, Julian C. Crane, and Joseph Lin

Abstract

We found in light and scanning electron microscopic studies of buds of the pistillate ‘Kerman’ pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) that about 12 months elapsed from the time of inflorescence differentiation until the opening of individual flowers. Growth of the rachis and its lateral branches occurred from April to June; sepal differentiation, from late May to mid June; pistil initiation, from early October to March; and carpel development, from late March to early April. Cessation of the development of the inflorescence buds during July, August, and early September appears to be unrelated to nut growth and development, as buds were inactive during that period in both bearing and nonbearing trees.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda, R. Arora, M. Wisniewski, and M. Warmund

`Danka' black currant floral buds produce multiple low temperature exotherms (LTEs). However, the absence of visual injury symbtoms in the buds after exposure to subfreezing temperatures make it difficult to assess injury in these buds. A 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction assay was used to determine whether LTEs corresponded to freezing injury of individual floral primordia or to the entire floral axis. Intact buds were cooled at 3C/n, removed at 3C intervals from -12 to -33C, and thawed on ice for 24 h. Duplicate samples were subjected to differential thermal analysis. Freeze injury Could not be measured with TTC in thawed, intact buds. However, incubation of excised floral primordia in TTC resulted in an all or nothing response. The number of LTES did not correspond to the number of floral primordia killed within a floral bud, but the median LTE did correspond with the temperature at which lethal injury of the whole inflorescence occurred. Therefore, preliminary results indicate that TTC reduction assay of individual floral buds is a fast, reliable technique to assess bud injury.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda, Ann K. Hummell, and Donald L. Peterson

Mature 'Chester Thornless' blackberry plants were trained to the rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis to determine the effect of retaining two, four, or six primocanes on plant productivity. Retention of only the two oldest primocanes and generally the most vigorous primocanes per plant yielded 14.1 kg of fruit compared to 17.1 kg per plant in which as many as six primocanes were retained. Increasing the number of canes did not result in significant yield increase (P = 0.09) because the primocanes trained in late-June and July produced only a few, and, in some cases, no lateral branches. Thus, retaining only those canes that become trainable early in the season decreased labor inputs and allowed primocane training to be completed prior to the onset of harvest. As a result, the effort to train and retain only those primocanes that reach the trainable height before mid-June may be advantageous to minimize labor costs, but will not effect plant productivity.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda, Ann K. Hummell, and Donald L. Peterson

A study was conducted to characterize vegetative growth of mature 'Chester Thornless' blackberry plants trained to the rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis in which up to six primocanes were retained. Cane emergence occurred from mid-April to late-May. The first (oldest) primocane attained a sufficient height to be trained in early May in 40% of plants, but younger primocanes could not be trained until late July. However, only 94%, 73%, 60%, and 42% of plants developed three, four, five, and six primocanes, respectively. In primocanes that were trained from 14 May to 3 June, eight or nine medium (0.7-1.3 m) to long (>1.3 m) lateral branches developed. Primocanes tied from 4 June to 16 July averaged less than six lateral branches that were mostly of medium and short (<0.7 m) categories. Primocanes trained after 16 July produced only two short lateral branches. The results indicated that training primocanes from mid-May to mid-June for 'Chester Thornless' blackberry on the RCA trellis would be advantageous to minimize labor costs.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda, Bernadine C. Strik, Derek Peacock, and John R. Clark

Transition to reproductive development and subsequent development of floral primordia (e.g., sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils) were determined in several blackberry (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson) cultivars (Boysen, Cherokee, Chester Thornless, Marion, and Thornless Evergreen) growing in one or more locations (Clarksville, Ark., Aurora and Hillsboro, Ore., and Kearneysville, W. Va.). Also, daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures were recorded at three sites (Clarksville, Aurora, and Kearneysville) for the September to April sampling period. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' from Oregon, sepal primordia were first observed in November and December, respectively. Further floral bud development continued into January. Sepal development in `Cherokee' buds occurred in October in Oregon and in December in Arkansas. At all three sites, the buds of `Chester Thornless' blackberry remained undifferentiated until spring. The average mean temperatures in Oregon were generally well above 5 °C during the bud sampling period, but were near 0 °C on most days from mid-December to January in Arkansas and from December to late-February in West Virginia. The phenology of flower bud differentiation varied among the cultivars and was strongly influenced by prevailing winter temperatures. The results suggest that the shortening day lengths of late summer trigger flower bud development in blackberry. Floral bud development in blackberry, once initiated, was continuous; however, periods of low temperature (<2 °C) can arrest development.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda, Gary W. Lightner, and Bruce L. Upchurch

Free access

Michele R. Warmund, Fumiomi Takeda, and Glen A. Davis

`Hull Thornless' and `Black Satin' blackberry (Rubus spp.) canes were collected from Sept. 1989 through Mar. 1990 to determine the hardiness and supercooling characteristics of buds at various stages of development. Anatomical studies were also conducted to examine the location of ice voids in buds frozen to -5 or -30C. Differentiation of the terminal flower occurred in `Black Satin' buds by 6 Nov., whereas `Hull Thornless' buds remained vegetative until early spring. As many as nine floral primordia were observed in both cultivars by 12 Mar. The hardiness of the two cultivars was similar until February. Thereafter, `Black Satin' buds were more susceptible to cold injury than those of `Hull Thornless'. Flora1 and undifferentiated buds of both cultivars exhibited one to four low temperature exotherms (LTEs) from 9 Oct. to 12 Mar. in differential thermal analysis (DTA) experiments. The stage of flora1 development did not influence the bud's capacity to supercool. The number of LTEs was not related to the stage of floral development or to the number of floral primordia. Extracellular voids resulting from ice formation in the bud axis and scales were observed in samples subjected to -5 or -30C.

Free access

Fumiomi Takeda, Bernadine C. Strik, Derek Peacock, and John R. Clark

Flower bud development was studied in `Cherokee', `Boysen', and `Marion' blackberries (Rubus subgenus Rubus Watson). In `Cherokee' (erect type), the transition to reproductive development in buds on the branch canes occurred during September in Arkansas and Oregon. Transitions of buds in the axils of the most basal nodes (proximal to the main cane) and the most distal nodes lagged behind buds in the midsection (about nodes 6 to 10). Along the midsection of branch canes, the buds developed uniformly. In buds of `Boysen' and `Marion' (trailing type), the transition to reproductive development occurred in October and sepal primordia were observed in most buds examined by November. Progression of floral bud development continued into January, but at a slower rate than in autumn. Buds on the main canes (>3 m long) of `Boysen' and `Marion' remained at a more advanced stage of flower bud differentiation than buds on the basal branch canes. In both cultivars, buds from the middle one-third section, and sometimes buds from the bottom one-third section, tended to be more advanced than those buds in the top one-third section during much of the sampling period. The results suggest that rate and patterns of flower bud development vary among cultivars grown in different locations. However, the pattern of flower bud development was not in a basipetal fashion on main or branch canes.