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E. Arnaud-Santana, M.T. Mmbaga, D.P. Coyne, and J.R. Steadman

We studied leaf and pod reactions of 18 Phaseolus vulgaris germplasm lines (three temperate and 15 tropical) to four Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (XCP) (Smith) Dye strains and seven Uromyces appendiculatus (UA) (Pers.) Unger races. Line × XCP interaction was significant for leaf and pod reactions. The common bean lines XAN-159, BAC-6, and XAN-112 had the best combined leaf and pod resistance to XCP. Line × UA race interactions were significant (P = 0.05). Lines IAPAR-14 and BAC-6 had the best combined resistance to XCP and UA.

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N. Mutlu, D.P. Coyne, S.O. Park, and J.R. Steadman

Common bacterial blight (CBB) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp), reduces bean yields and quality throughout the world. Pinto `Chase' is a high-yielding variety with moderate resistance to Xcp derived from great northern Nebraska #1 selection 27, whose resistance is derived from an unknown tepary (P. acutifolius) bean source. XAN-159 is a black mottled small seeded breeding line with different genes for high resistance to Xcp derived from a different tepary source (PI 319443). Our objective was to pyramid different genes for Xcp resistance from the donor parent XAN-159 into the rust-resistant recurrent parent Pinto `Chase' using the classical back-cross breeding method with confirmation of resistance using RAPD molecular markers. Resistance was confirmed in some BC2F2 generation plants. Seven RAPD markers and the V locus (flower color) previously identified were confirmed in the BC1 and BC2 populations. Smaller seed size, purple flower color, and black mottled seed coat color were coinherited with resistance to Xcp. However, a recombinant plant with enhanced CBB resistance and moderate-sized pinto seed was identified. Backcross breeding is being continued.

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H.M. Ariyarathne, D.P. Coyne, A.K. Vidaver, and K. Eskridge

The inheritance and heritability (H) of leaf and pods reactions and seed infection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) were studied in three crosses along with flower and stem color, and the association of reactions to Xcp in the plant organs. Recombinant inbred lines from the crosses `PC 50' × XAN 159, BAC 6 × HT 7719, and BelNeb 1 × A 55 were used. Quantitative inheritance patterns were observed for disease reactions in leaves, pods, and seeds. Stem and flower color were inherited qualitatively. Low to intermediate and intermediate H estimates were found for pod reactions when inoculated on the same time, allowing the infection to occur in a uniform environment. Intermediate to high H estimates were found for leaf and seed reactions to Xcp, respectively. Significant positive intermediate to moderately high correlations were found between the reactions to Xcp of the first trifoliolate with later-developed leaves and pods in all three populations. The moderately high genetic correlations between leaves and pods suggested that some common genes may control the reactions to Xcp in these plant organs. No association was detected between flower or stem color and reactions to Xcp.

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G. Jung, J. Nienhuis, S. Hirano, C. Upper, H. Ariyarathne, and D.P. Coyne

Bacterial brown spot (BBS), incited by the bacterial pathogen Pseodomonas syringae pv. syringae is important disease of common bean. Phenotypic visual readings of infected areas and a leaf freezing assay estimating the population size of Pss on leaf surface were used for disease assessment for 2 years using 78 RI lines derived from Belneb RR-1 x A55 population grown in Wisconsin. The objectives of this research were to determine the genomic regions of QTL affecting the genetic variation of bacterial brown spot resistance in both assays over 2 years (1996 and 1998) and to determine the size of their genetic effects. In addition, we examined the consistency of detected QTL over environments. Three chromosomal regions associated with QTL for BBS resistance were identified in both assays in 1996 and one chromosomal region was consistently detected over 2 years.

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H.M. Ariyarathne, D.P. Coyne, A.K. Vidaver, and K.M. Eskridge

Breeding for resistance is an important strategy to manage common bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (E. Smith) Dye (Xep) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It is necessary to determine if prior inoculation of the first trifoliolate leaf with Xcp influences subsequent reactions in other plant organs by increasing or decreasing resistance to Xcp. It is difficult to get an accurate estimate of heritability of disease reaction in pods since environment greatly affects the heritability estimate if flowering occurs over extended time periods. Thus, the disease reaction in attached pods versus detached pods was compared. A split-split plot design with two replications (growth chambers as blocks) was used, with bean lines as the whole-plot factors, Xcp strains as subplot factors, and bacterial inoculation treatments for leaf reactions or pod treatments as split-split plot factors. The first trifoliolate leaves, later developed leaves, and attached and detached pods were inoculated. No effects of prior inoculation on the disease reactions of subsequently inoculated leaves and pods were observed, indicating that the different plant organs can be inoculated at different times. The fact that detached and attached pods showed similar disease symptoms would suggest use of the former to reduce environment variance and improve heritability estimates of resistance.

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H. M. Ariyarathne, D. P. Coyne, Anne K. Vidaver, and K. M. Eskridge

Breeding for resistance is a major method to control the common bacterial blight disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli (Xcp) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It is necessary to determine if prior inoculation of the first trifoliolate leaf with Xcp will influence the subsequent reaction in other plant parts through induced resistance. It is difficult to get an accurate estimate of heritability (H) of disease reaction in pods since environment (E) greatly affects the H estimate if flowering occurs over extended time periods. Thus the disease reaction in attached pods vs detached pods was also observed. Four common bean lines were used in a split plot design with two replications. Two bacterial strains were used for inoculations. Two growth chambers were used as replicates. The first trifoliolate leaves, later developed leaves and attached pods and detached pods were inoculated. No effect of prior inoculation on the disease reactions of subsequently inoculated leaves and pods were observed indicating that the different plant parts can be inoculated at different times. Detached and attached pods showed similar disease symptoms. The former may be used to reduce E variance and improve H estimates.

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Eladio Arnaud-Santana, D.P. Coyne, K.M. Eskridge, and A.K. Vidaver

The heritability of leaf, pod, and seed reactions; stem color and abaxial leaf pubescence; and the association of these traits were studied in advanced dry bean recombinant inbred lines derived from the Phaseolus vulgaris crosses `PC-SO' × XAN-159, `PC-50' × BAC-6, and `Venezuela 44' × BAC-6. The reaction to Xcp was quantitatively inherited in all three plant organs. Qualitative inheritance was found for stem color and leaf pubescence. Low to intermediate heritability values were obtained for the leaf and seed reactions to Xcp. Heritability estimates were consistently low for the pod reaction to Xcp. Low nonsignificant Pearson correlations were detected between leaf and pod reactions, leaf and seed reactions, and pod and seed reactions, except for the latter two correlations, which were low and significant in lines from the cross `PC-50' × XAN-154. Genetic correlations between leaf and pod reactions and leaf and seed reactions were low and significant in lines from all crosses, except for Venezuela 44 × BAC-6 in the latter case. Genetic correlations between pod and seed reactions were low and nonsignificant, except in the cross `PC-50' × XAN-159, for which a low significant correlation was observed. No significant association was found between Xcp leaf reaction and stem color or leaf pubescence. A breeding strategy for improving resistance to Xcp in P. vulgaris is discussed.

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D. P. Coyne, J. R. Steadman, D. T. Lindgren, D.S. Nuland, J. S. Beaver, F. Saladin, and E. Arnaud Santana

Disease of beans, particularly common bacterial blight (CBB) (DR, NE), rust (DR, NE), web blight (WB) (DR) and bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) (DR) are major constraints to bean yields and seed quality. The objectives were to identify resistant (R) germplasm, to conduct genetic studies, to develop R cultivars (DR, NE), to improve research facilities and capabilities (DR), to train personnel and educate graduate students (DR, NE). The expected impact is (1) the improvement of breeding programs, yields and income to farmers and (2) returning specialists will permit improved research in the DR. The most significant advances in research were as follows: (i) BAC-6 dry bean breeding line was found to be R to CBB seed infection, (ii) The reaction to CBB was inherited quantitatively with low NSH estimates, (iii) Rust race nonspecific R was correlated with abaxial leaf pubescence; the latter trait was inherited qualitatively, (iv) R to BGMV and WB were identified and (v) Improved cultivars and breeding lines were developed (DR, NE).

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Rohini Deshpande, D. P. Coyne, K. G. Hubbard, J. R. Steadman, E. P. Kerr, and Anne M. Parkhurst

The microclimate of Great Northern (GN) dry bean lines with diverse plant architecture was investigated in terms of white mold (WM) incidence and yield. A split-plot design was used with protected (3 weekly sprays of benomyl 0.9 KG HA-1 after flowering) and unprotected treatments as main-plots and GN lines as sub-plots in a WM nursery (1990, 1991). Canopy density, erectness, leaf area index, and plant characteristics were measured. `Starlight' (upright) and `Tara' (prostrate) were selected for detailed microclimate studies. An infrared thermometer, humidity sensor, and a thermistor were placed within the canopy at the advent of flowering. Leaf wetness and its duration were estimated by the leaf temperature in combination with air temperature and dewpoint temperature. `Starlight' showed later and shorter duration of leaf wetness, lower humidity, and WM and higher yield than `Tara'. Severe WM and reduced yields occurred also on all other susceptible entries with dense prostrate plant habits in the unprotected plots. Fractal analysis was done on the images of the canopy to quantify the light interception within the canopy.

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D.P. Coyne, J.R. Steadman, D.T. Lindgren, David Nuland, Durward Smith, J.R. Stavely, J. Reiser, and L. Sutton

Common bacterial blight (CBB), rust (RU), and white mold (WM) are serious diseases of great northern (GN) and pinto (P) beans in Nebraska and Colorado. The bacterial diseases halo blight (HB) and brown spot (BS) are sporadic. Severe Fe-induced leaf chlorosis (Fe ILC) occurs on calcareous sites. Separate inoculated disease nurseries are used to screen for resistance to the pathogens causing the above diseases. Yields and seed quality of lines are also determined in non-disease trials. Sources of exotic resistance to the above pathogens and to Fe ILD have been identified and their inheritance determined. A non-structured recurrent selection scheme has mainly been used, occasionally with a backcross program, to combine high levels of the desired traits. Selection for highly heritable traits such as seed size, shape and color, maturity, plant architecture, and RU resistance occurs in early generations while traits of low heritability, such as CBB resistance, WM avoidance, yield, seed coat cracking resistance, and canning quality, are evaluated in separate replicated tests over several years and finally for yield in on-farm-trials. A number of multiple disease resistant, high-yielding, well-adapted GN and P lines are or will be released; P `Chase' (on about 30,000 acres in 1996) and GN WM 3-94-9 (for possible release).