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Anson E. Thompson, Chiwon W. Lee, and Ronald E. Gass

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Chun Ho Pak*, Seung Won Kang, and Chiwon W. Lee

The influence of water-soluble fertilizer (WSF, 3 different formulations) and slow-release fertilizer (SRF, Osmocote, 14N-6.2P-11.6K) on the growth and quality of potted carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Invitation) in a C-channel mat irrigation system was investigated. When fertilized with 0.4, 0.8, or 2.0 g·L-1 of WSF (20N-7.9P-16.6K for weeks 1-4, 13K-0.1P-18.8K for weeks 5-11, and 15N-0P-12.5K for weeks 12-15), the 0.8 g·L-1 solution produced the highest quality plants as determined by total shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf area and number, plant height, and number of branches per pot. The quality of plants grown with 0.4 g·L-1 or 2.0 g·L-1 WSF solution was also commercially acceptable. The growth rate of all plants began to accelerate at around 60 days after treatment started, with some variation with the fertilizer treatments. Plants began to show a reduced growth rate at around 90 days from the treatment when they underwent a phase change from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. Plants grown with SRF alone were less vigorous than those grown with WSF, especially when temperature was lower. Results of this study indicate that high quality pot carnations can be produced, using a reduced amount of fertilizer applied to the C-channel mat irrigation system.

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Jodie L. Ramsay, Donald S. Galitz, and Chiwon W. Lee

Influences of culture media, sucrose, and growth regulator concentrations on plant regeneration from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum L.) were investigated. Ovary tissues excised from unopened flower buds (3-10 cm long) were cultured on either B-5 medium or MS medium containing 2, 5, or 10% sucrose, 0.8% agar or Phytagel, and varying concentrations of 2,4-D, kinetin, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). Callus formation from explants was more prolific on MS medium than on B-5 medium and when cultures were initially placed in the dark for 20 days. Cultures grew best when the medium contained 5% sucrose. Shoot differentiation from callus was maximum when MS medium contained 1 mg/liter 2,4-D and 2 mg/liter BA. Roots developed when shoots were placed on the same medium with 1 mg/liter 2,4-D, 0.1 mg/liter NAA and 0.1 mg/liter kinetin. Rooted plants were successfully transferred into soil medium in a greenhouse.

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Jodie L. Ramsay, Donald S. Galitz, and Chiwon W. Lee

Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum L.) cultivars Ace and Nellie White were regenerated through the culture of immature ovary tissues. Shoot initiation and proliferation were most efficient when a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 5% sucrose, 1 mg 2,4-D/liter, and 2 mg benzylamino purine (BAP)/liter was used. The shoots, when divided and subcultured on the same medium, formed roots within 4 weeks. The rooted plants were transferred to soil in a greenhouse. Root-tip smears made from the regenerated plants showed a range of variation in chromosome numbers from 10 to 25 per cell, in contrast to the bulb-grown plants, which had 2x = 24 chromosomes per cell. The mixoploid condition existed in many regenerants exhibiting chromosome number variation in different root cells of the same plant.

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Chun Ho Pak, Seung Won Kang, and Chiwon W. Lee

Efficacy of application methods and concentration of plant growth retardants on growth of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum cv. Cheasepeake) was tested. B-9 or cycocel (CCC) as a growth retardant was applied as drench or subapplication with nutrient solution. In the case of B-9 drench treatments, as B-9 concentrations increased, numbers of flowers and flower buds increased except in the 1500-ppm treatment. Increasing concentration of CCC also resulted in reduction of flower numbers, total plant height, total leaf area, branch number, and fresh weight. Reduction ratio of total plant height in 2000 ppm showed about 56.9% being compared to that of the 100-ppm drench treatment. B-9 or CCC, combined with nutrient solution, was also supplied from the C-channel subirrigation system. The B-9 subapplication treatment showed no significance among these concentrations, but flower numbers, total plant height, average plant height, and leaf numbers decreased as concentrations of CCC increased. B-9 or CCC with the same concentration was drenched after 2 weeks of the first experiment to compare planting time efficacy. Measured data increased until B-9 increased up to 2500 ppm and severe growth retardation resulted from the 5000-ppm treatment. Through this growth retardant application study, the combination of drenching concentration and period of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may result in effective growth retardation and reduction of application concentrations for pot plant production.

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Shanqiang Ke, Chiwon W. Lee, and Zong-Ming Cheng

Coleoptile tissues excised from young seedlings of `Touchdown' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) were bombarded with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying rolC (from A. rhizogenes), NPT II and GUS genes. These tissues were then cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.2 mg·L–1 picloram, 0.01 mg·L–1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 150 mg·L–1 kanamycin, and 50 m acetosyringone. Calli formed on this medium within 2 weeks. The regenerated plants from these calli were analyzed for the presence of the GUS and rolC genes by histochemical GUS assay, PCR, and Southern hybridization. Only 3.7% of the regenerants were transformed when determined by the GUS assay. A similar frequency of transformation in the regenerated plants was obtained after bombarding the coleoptile tissues with the DNA isolated from the pGA-GUSGF-rolC plasmid. Most of the putative transformants were either albinos or variegated plants that are composed of both albino and green tissues.

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Jodie L. Ramsay, Donald S. Galitz, and Chiwon W. Lee

Influences of culture media and sucrose concentrations on plant regeneration from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum L. cv. Ace) ovary tissues were investigated. Pistils excised from unopened flower buds (3-5 cm long) were sectioned and cultured on either B-5 medium or Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 2%, 5%, or 10% sucrose, with 1 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 2 mg·L-1 BA. Callus formation was most prolific on MS medium containing 5% sucrose. Shoot differentiation was higher on MS medium than on B-5 medium. Rooted plants were transferred into soil medium and grown in a greenhouse. Root tip smears showed that 35% of the regenerated plants showed a variation in chromosome numbers from 10 to 25 per cell, while the rest of the regenerants showed the normal 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes per cell. The mixoploid condition also existed in different root cells of the same regenerated plant. Chemical names used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); 6-benzylaminopurine (BA).

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Chiwon W. Lee, Jong-Myung Choi, and Chun-Ho Pak

Seed geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) micronutrient toxicity symptoms were induced by applying elevated levels of B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in fertilizer solution. Beginning at the 3-4 true leaf stage, seedling plants established in 11-cm (0.67-liter) pots containing peat-lite growing medium were fertilized at each irrigation for 5 weeks with solutions containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm plus the standard concentration of each micronutrient. The standard solution contained 20 μm B, 0.5 μm Cu, 10 μm Fe, 10 μm Mn, 0.5 μm Mo, and 4 μm Zn. All treatment solutions contained a fixed level of macronutrients. Visible foliar toxicity symptoms were produced when the nutrient solution contained 0.5 mm B, 0.5 mm Cu, 5 mm Fe, 1 mm Mn, 0.25 mm Mo, or 0.5 mm Zn. Reduction in dry matter yield was evident when 1 mm B, 2 mm Cu, 3 mm Fe, 2 mm Mn, 0.5 mm Mo, or 1 mm Zn was used in the fertilizer solution. Leaf chlorophyll contents decreased as Cu and Mn levels in the concentration range tested increased. Elevated levels of Fe increased tissue chlorophyll contents. The relationship between the nutrient solution and tissue concentrations of each of the six micronutrients was determined.

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Todd P. West, Samuel L. DeMarais, and Chiwon W. Lee

Temperate-zone woody plant species generally require seed stratification to overcome embryo dormancy. Embryo dormancy is variable in japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) with a recommendation of 30- to 90-days stratification at 1–5 °C. Cultivar propagation generally is done by grafting onto seedling rootstocks. It would be advantageous to rootstock seedling production to be able to reduce or eliminate the need for seed stratification to increase germination numbers as well as having production moved from field beds to greenhouses for quicker production of high-quality rootstock plants suitable for grafting. Research objective of this study was to determine if “green” seed could be used without the need of stratification for japanese tree lilac seedling production. Seed capsule fresh weight and seed moisture content were evaluated to determine if these factors could be used as predictors of germination percentages. Seed was randomly collected at the North Dakota State University campus in Fargo, ND, for seven consecutive weeks starting in Sept. 2011 and 2012. Germination and seed moisture tests were performed weekly. Germination percentage was highest (89.5%) at week 2 and steadily decreased to 0% at week 7. Germination percentages were 77.5%, 89.5%, 78.5%, 67%, 24.5%, 1.5%, and 0% for consecutive collection weeks 1–7, respectively. Seed moisture content was 59.0%, 52.6%, 49.8%, 51.8%, 44.5%, 27.4%, and 8.6% for collection weeks 1–7, respectively. Germination percentage was directly correlated with seed moisture content and decreased as seed capsules matured (natural drying and splitting of capsule seem to disperse seed) during the fall season. Data suggest that timing of fall seed collection from japanese tree lilac is critical and must be done before maturation of the seed capsule to avoid the stratification requirement. Seed capsules with an average fresh weight higher than 0.2 g and seed moisture content greater than 50% produced the highest germination rates without requiring stratification.

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Sung Eun Lee, Chun Ho Pak, Yong Beom Lee, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, and Chiwon W. Lee

Afield study evaluated the influence of planting density on the yield and quality of confectionery seed pumpkins grown near Hatton, N.D. An open-pollinated selection of Chinese snow-white seeds (CS) and a hull-less (HL) seed cultivar (`Takai', Johnny's Selected Seeds) were grown at three different planting densities (1-, 2-, or 3-ft plant spacing on rows 5 ft apart) from 5 May to 7 Oct. The total number of plants at high, medium, and low densities was 8712, 4356, and 2904 per acre (21,529, 10,764, and 7176 plants per ha, respectively). The average number of fruits harvested at high, medium, and low densities, respectively, was 0.93, 1.2, and 1.4 per plant for CS and 1.2, 1.7, and 2.5 per plant for HL. Total seed yields were estimated at 1011, 599, and 466 kg/acre (2498, 1480, and 1151 kg·ha-1) for CS and 661, 500, and 498 kg/acre (1633, 1235, and 1231 kg·ha-1) for HL, respectively, at high, medium, and low planting densities. While the average weight of fruits decreased as planting density increased, the total number and weight of seeds produced per fruit were unaffected by changing plant density in either cultivar.