In west–central Florida, strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) are harvested from early December to late March. The peak harvest occurs at the end of the season and lasts ≈1 month, usually from late February to mid-March. As the peak harvest progresses and temperatures increase, fruit become smaller and the soluble solids content (SSC) of fruit declines. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the progression of peak harvest results in a decline in SSC independent of temperature. In 2007 and 2008, recently opened flowers were tagged in the field on the first week into the peak bloom (WPB) and for 3 additional weeks thereafter. Three days after tagging, plants were transplanted to one of two constant temperature environments (15 or 22 °C). At maturity, the weight, SSC, and fruit development period (FDP) of tagged fruit were recorded. Fruit SSC was lower at the higher temperature (5.2% at 22 °C versus 6.5% at 15 °C) in both years. In 2007, SSC was not correlated with WPB, and in 2008, SSC was positively correlated with WPB at constant temperatures. In addition, the coefficient of determination (r 2) for a regression of SSC on mean temperature over the period 8 days before harvest was 0.73 for fruit harvested from fields between 2003 and 2009. These results indicate that rising temperature is a major factor responsible for the late-season decline of SSC in strawberry fruit in a subtropical production system.
Steven J. MacKenzie, Craig K. Chandler, Tomas Hasing, and Vance M. Whitaker
Colleen Kennedy, Tomas N. Hasing, Natalia A. Peres, and Vance M. Whitaker
Many breeders have turned to wild relatives in search of beneficial traits such as disease resistance. In strawberry, the wild octoploid species Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis are fully interfertile with the cultivated species, F. ×ananassa, and are therefore potential sources of resistance. Powdery mildew may increase in economic importance in Florida in the near future as a result of the use of high tunnels and rowcovers for freeze protection, which limit free water and provide a favorable environment for disease development. The objective of this study was to screen an elite group of wild strawberry accessions for resistance to powdery mildew under two production systems. In 2010–11 and 2012–13, wild accessions, commercial standard cultivars, and susceptible controls were planted in open-field and high tunnel environments at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Balm, FL. Although there was a significant year × genotype effect, some taxa showed high levels of resistance that were consistent across years. There was a high correlation for ratings of powdery mildew between the high tunnel and the open field for all genotypes (r = 0.89, P < 0.001). This information may be useful for breeders, because sources of resistance to powdery mildew are available within the tested genotypes. However, some accessions are highly susceptible to powdery mildew, and this must be considered when using these genotypes in breeding programs.
Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Rebecca L. Darnell, Bielinski M. Santos, and Kelly T. Morgan
Earlier fall planting dates for strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in west-central Florida tend to promote earlier onset of flowering and fruiting. However, warm air temperatures (>28 °C) can result in excessive growth and runner production. Sprinkler irrigation is a common practice to reduce air temperature in the first 10 to15 days after transplanting, requiring large volumes of irrigation water. An alternative to sprinkler irrigation is the application of crop protectants such as kaolin clay after transplanting. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimal planting dates and to assess the most appropriate establishment practices for strawberry bare-root transplants in Florida. Four establishment practices—10 days of sprinkler irrigation (DSI), 10 DSI + kaolin clay, 7 DSI, and 7 DSI + kaolin clay were evaluated for ‘Florida Radiance’ and Sweet Sensation® ‘Florida127’ transplanted in mid September, late September, and early October in consecutive seasons. For ‘Florida127’, September planting dates increased early yield compared with early-October traditional planting dates, with no difference in total yield. Seven DSI followed by the foliar application of kaolin clay at day 8 was also found to increase early yield compared with 10 DSI for strawberry establishment, with annual water savings of 108.7 mm.
Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims
Youngjae Oh, Jason D. Zurn, Nahla Bassil, Patrick P. Edger, Steven J. Knapp, Vance M. Whitaker, and Seonghee Lee
The availability of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) genomic resources has increased dramatically in recent years. Some of these resources are readily applicable to strawberry breeding programs for use in DNA-informed breeding. Information about these tests and how to interpret them is dispersed through numerous manuscripts or in the laboratories that use them routinely. To assist breeders in identifying tests available to their breeding program and in implementing them in their program, a compendium of strawberry DNA tests was created. This compendium is available for download from the Genome Database for Rosaceae (https://www.rosaceae.org/organism/Fragaria/x-ananassa?pane=resource-4). This resource will be updated continually as old tests are modified and new tests are created.
Vance M. Whitaker, Craig K. Chandler, Bielinski M. Santos, Natalia Peres, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims
Vance M. Whitaker, Luis F. Osorio, Natalia A. Peres, Zhen Fan, Mark Herrington, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims
Vance M. Whitaker, Natalia A. Peres, Luis F. Osorio, Zhen Fan, M. Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, Anne Plotto, and Charles A. Sims
Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada, Lincoln Zotarelli, Vance M. Whitaker, Rebecca L. Darnell, Kelly Morgan, and Bielinski M. Santos
Florida-produced strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) plug transplants (SP) are a potential alternative to bare-root transplants (BR). The adoption of this technology could represent a reduction in water usage for plant establishment and potentially higher early yield, as SP may establish more quickly than BR. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of time in nursery and tray sizes, on early and total strawberry yield for Florida-produced SP for ‘Florida Radiance’, ‘Strawberry Festival’, and Sweet Sensation® ‘Florida127’. Runners from Florida-produced mother plants were collected in mid and late August from 2012 to 2015. SP were grown for either 4 or 6 weeks according to the treatment and established in 30-, 40-, 50-, and 72-cell trays, and compared with BR (control). Additionally, strawberry tips from California were evaluated for SP production. BR consistently had higher early yield than SP, ranging from 36% to 91%, between 2012 and 2016. SP produced the same or higher total yield than BR. Florida-produced SP should be grown for 4 weeks before field transplanting in 50-cell trays based on the results of this study. Furthermore, there was no difference between California and Florida tips for total yield. In all seasons, all SP were established with 20% of the total irrigation water used for the BR. Thus, SP could potentially result in water savings of almost 820,800 gal/acre per season, but the early yield of SP would need to be improved to match BR performance.
Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James Luby, Alicia Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Vance M. Whitaker, Chad E. Finn, James F. Hancock, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt, and Amy Iezzoni
The primary goal of this research was to evaluate the relative importance of strawberry fruit quality and plant traits to strawberry producers. Previous studies focus on strawberry traits that impact postharvest quality and marketable yield; however, studies emphasizing the importance of these traits to strawberry producers are scarce. To investigate U.S. strawberry producer trait preferences, a series of audience surveys were conducted at four strawberry producer meetings across the United States. Results indicate that fruit firmness, fruit flavor, and fruit shelf life at retail were the most important fruit/plant traits to producers for a successful strawberry cultivar to possess. Growing state and producers’ years involved in the decision-making process of strawberry farms impacted the relative importance of the fruit/plant traits. This study directly contributes to a larger investigation of supply chain members’ trait preferences to improve the efficiency of Rosaceae fruit crop breeding programs and to increase the likelihood of new cultivar adoption. The overall project should result in a more efficient approach to new strawberry cultivar development and commercialization.