Germinated Impatiens wallerana Hook. f. `Super Elfin Salmon Blush' seeds were exposed to subatmospheric O2 concentrations for 12, 24, or 48 hours at 25C. Suppression of radicle growth during a subsequent 24-hour simulated shipping period was monitored, as was plant growth during a subsequent growth cycle. One percent to 2% O2 for 12 or 24 hours limited radicle elongation to <1.0 mm during the simulated shipping period (darkness, ambient O2) and caused no permanent damage to seedlings. Suppression of radicle elongation with low O2 was greater with a 24-hour than a 12-hour exposure. Oxygen at 0% for 24 hours or at 0% to 1.5% O2 for 48 hours damaged seedlings irreversibly. These results show that specific subatmospheric O2 treatments can restrict radicle elongation of germinated seeds during subsequent shipment to a grower and that the low O2 treatment does not decrease subsequent plant growth.
Gary F. Polking, Richard J. Gladon, and David S. Koranski
Fredy R. Romero*, Richard J. Gladon, and Henry G. Taber
Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f.) is the most important annual bedding plant in the US, based on wholesale dollar volume. Production of high-quality plants requires optimization of the nutrition regimen during growth, especially the total nitrogen (N) concentration and the ratio of N sources. Our objective was to determine the N concentration and ratio of N sources that optimize bedding-plant impatiens growth and development. We used four N concentrations (3.5, 7, 10.5, and 14 mmol·L-1 of N) in factorial combination with four ratios of nitrate-N (NO3 --N) to ammonium-N (NH4 +-N) (4:0, 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3). Application of treatments began at day 30, and every-other-day applications were conducted until day 60. From day 60 to day 70 only deionized water was applied. N concentration and source displayed interation for most growth parameters. When N was supplied at a concentration ≤7 mmol·L-1, the NO3 --N to NH4 +-N ratio did not affect growth. When N was supplied at a concentration ≥10.5 mmol·L-1, a 1:3 NO3 --N to NH4 +-N ratio yielded the greatest shoot dry weight, shoot fresh weight, plant diameter, and number of flower buds per plant. With a NO3 --N to NH4 +-N ratio of 4:0, these growth parameters decreased. To produce high-quality, bedding-plant impatiens, N should be applied at NO3 --N to NH4 +-N ratios between 1:1 and 1:3 in combination with an N concentration of 10.5 mmol·L<-1 at each fertigation from day 30 to day 60 of the production cycle.
Angela R. Beaman, Richard J. Gladon, and James A. Schrader
Energy conservation in controlled-environment agriculture is a major concern for both commercial and research facilities as well as extraterrestrial facilities for food production. Supplying optimal irradiance by using electrical lighting for the greatest edible biomass production potentially is the greatest draw on energy during earth-based or extraterrestrial food production in controlled environments. Our objective was to determine the optimal irradiance for greatest edible biomass production of three cultivars of basil (Basilicum ocimum L.) in a controlled-environment production system. Seedlings of the three cultivars were transplanted into soilless medium, one plant per pot, and grew for 17 days in reach-in growth chambers maintained at 25 ± 4 °C with a 16-h photoperiod. Canopy-level irradiances of 300, 400, 500, and 600 μmol·m−2·s−1 were provided by cool-white fluorescent and incandescent lamps. Shoot growth was measured as height, diameter, and number of leaves 0.5 cm long or greater; and edible biomass was measured as leaf fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, and shoot dry weight. There was no irradiance × cultivar interaction, but main effects of irradiance and cultivar were observed. Plant growth and edible biomass production were least at 300 μmol·m−2·s−1 and greatest at 500 or 600 μmol·m−2·s−1. In several cases, 400 μmol·m−2·s−1 yielded intermediate growth or edible biomass. Within the main effect of cultivar, Italian Large Leaf produced greater edible biomass than ‘Genovese’, and ‘Nufar’ yielded an intermediate amount of shoot fresh weight and dry weight. Under our environmental conditions that included ambient CO2 concentration and ambient relative humidity, the rate of growth peaked at 500 μmol·m−2·s−1, and no additional accumulation of edible biomass occurred at 600 μmol·m−2·s−1. Based on our results, canopy-level irradiance of 500 μmol·m−2·s−1 provides maximum edible biomass production of basil in a controlled-environment production system.
Robert W. McMahon, Cecil R. Stewart, and Richard J. Gladon
Chlorophyll a and b contents were determined in developing tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Heinz 1350') at 5-day increments from 10 or 15 days past anthesis to fulIy ripe (55 to 60 days). When presented on a whole-fruit basis, chlorophyll a and b contents increased from 15 days past anthesis to 35 days and then decreased to zero at 55 days. Porphobilinogen (EC 22.214.171.124; PBG) deaminase activity was measured in extracts from the fruit, and changes in PBG deaminase activity correlated with changes in chlorophyll and protein contents with respect to fruit age. Partial characterization of tomato PBG deaminase enzyme showed similarities to PBG deaminase enzymes isolated from other sources.
Mehrassa Khademi, David S. Koranski, David J. Hannapel, Allen D. Knapp, and Richard J. Gladon
Water uptake by impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f. cv. Super Elfin Coral) seeds was measured as an increase in fresh weight every 24 hours during 144 hours of germination. Seeds absorbed most of the water required for germination within 3 hours of imbibition and germinated at 60% to 67% moisture on a dry-weight basis. Germination started at 48 hours and was complete by 96 hours at 25C. Water stress of -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, induced by polyethylene glycol 8000, reduced germination by 13%, 49%, 91%, and 100%, respectively, at 96 hours. Under the same water-stress conditions, increases in fresh weight were inhibited by 53%, 89%, 107%, and 106%, respectively. Three distinct groups of storage proteins were present in dry seed; their estimated molecular weights were 1) 35, 33, and 31 kDa; 2) 26, 23, and 21 kDa; and 3) two bands <14 kDa. Major depletion of storage proteins coincided with the completion of germination. Water potentials that inhibited germination also inhibited degradation of storage proteins. During germination under optimum conditions, the soluble protein fraction increased, coinciding with a decrease in the insoluble fraction.
Marios C. Kyriacou, Gary F. Polking, David J. Hannapel, and Richard J. Gladon
Activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) dehydratase [ALAD, (EC 126.96.36.199)] and soluble protein content were determined in `Rutgers' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp extracts during development and ripening. ALAD activity in several organs of tomato plant also was determined. Fruit tissue was analyzed at 5-day intervals between days 10 and 60 postanthesis. ALAD activity in fruit tissue declined over time, with the most pronounced decrease occurring between days 10 and 25. At the mature green stage (day 40), and before the breaker stage (day 45), activity of ALAD had declined to a steady-state minimum, and it remained detectable at residual levels throughout ripening (days 40 to 60). Soluble protein content declined less rapidly than did ALAD activity. Immunoblot analysis showed that ALAD protein existed as a doublet of isozymes. One isozyme decreased in abundance, whereas the other isozyme remained constant during development and ripening. ALAD activity was greatest in extracts of chlorophyllous organs (stems, leaves, immature fruit) but only marginally detectable in extracts of nonchlorophyllous organs (roots, overripe fruit). The pH optimum and Km for tomato fruit ALAD were similar to those of ALAD isolated from other sources. Abbreviations: ALA, 5-aminolevulinic acid; ALAD, ALA dehydratase; PBG, porphobilinogen; SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacry - lamide gel electrophoresis.
Diana L. Dostal, Nancy Howard Agnew, Richard J. Gladon, and Jack L. Weigle
Exposure to exogenous ethylene (C2H4) caused corolla abscission of New Guinea impatiens (Impatiens × hawkeri `Sunfire'). Abscission varied with time of exposure and C2H4 concentration. Ethylene at ≥ 1 μl·liter-1 and exposure times of 4 or more hours caused 80% to 100% corolla abscission. Simulated shipping of untreated control plants caused ≈ 65% corolla abscission. Plants pretreated with silver thiosulfate (STS) and (aminooxy)acetic acid (AOA) and subsequently exposed to simulated shipping were not different from one another, and both treatments reduced corolla abscission to ≈ 20% when applied at 1.0 mm. Plants pretreated with STS and exposed to `exogenous C2H4 showed 0% abscission, whereas plants pretreated with AOA showed no reduction in abscission when compared with control plants.
Richard J. Gladon, David J. Hannapel, Mikhailo V. Kolomiets, Mikhailo V. Andriyenko, Petro V. Kondratenko, and Volodymyr Kopan
Ai-Yu Chang, Richard J. Gladon, Mark L. Gleason, Sharon K. Parker, Nancy H. Agnew, and Dennis G. Olson
Cut Rosa ×hybrida L. `Royalty' flowers were used to determine the efficacy of electron-beam irradiation for increasing postharvest quality and decreasing petal infection by Botrytis cinerea Pers. In an experiment for determining the injury threshold, roses received electron-beam irradiation of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy. Irradiation dosages ≥1 kGy caused necrosis on petal tissue and decreased postharvest life at 20 °C. In a second experiment to evaluate postharvest quality, roses were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 kGy. Dosages of 0.25 and 0.5 kGy slowed the rate of flower bud opening for 2 days but did not decrease postharvest quality when compared with nonirradiated roses. Roses that received irradiation dosages of 0.75 and 1 kGy showed unacceptable quality. In a third experiment, roses that had or had not been inoculated with B. cinerea were irradiated at 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy. Irradiation did not control B. cinerea populations, and rose quality decreased as dosage increased. In a fourth experiment to determine the effect of irradiation on B. cinerea, conidia on water-agar plates exposed to dosages ≤1, 2, and 4 kGy germinated at rates of ≈90%, 33%, and 2%, respectively, within 24 h.