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Setapong Lekawatana and Richard A. Criley

Inflorescence abortion in heliconia contributes to an economic loss to growers. In an effort to determine the cause, we manipulated temperature, daylength and light intensity. Plants of Heliconia stricta cv. Dwarf Jamaican were grown in 4 day/night temperature regimes (15/10, 20/15, 25/20 and 30/25°C) under 14 hr daylength. In a separate experiment, plants were grown in full sun, 60% and 80% shade. Both experiments had been conducted after inflorescences were induced (4 weeks of short days). Apical meristems were dissected weekly to follow inflorescence development. Leaf abscisic acid level was detected by an indirect ELISA. Significantly more inflorescences were aborted in plants grown under high temperature regimes than in plants grown under low temperature regimes and under different light intensity. Abscisic acid concentration increased in heliconia leaves under regimes that induced inflorescence abortion. The results could provide a mean to improve heliconia inflorescence production.

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Norberto Maciel and Richard A. Criley

Heliconia rostrata is a herbaceous-musoid sympodial rhizomatous plant that grows as clump. After three leaves are produced, each shoot of the clump may bear an inflorescence if it is induced by short days (SD). However, the relationship between shoot density and flowering has not been quantified. To evaluate the effects of the inductive period, number of shoots, and leaf removal on flowering, rhizomes were planted in 120 pots (8 L). One-third of the pots were planted with two rhizomes, while the remainder was planted with one. One-half of the pots with one rhizome were allowed to develop all their shoots for three generations, while in the remaining pots only one shoot per generation was allowed to grow. In addition, one-half of the plants in all the treatments were subjected to selective leaf removal. The plants were grown under long days (LD) >13 h in a glasshouse until four leaves were produced. Inductive SD was supplied to all the plants from 5:00 pm to 8:00 am. After 8 weeks of SD, one-half of the plants were given LD, while the other half continued under SD (conSD) until flowering. The highest percentage of flowering shoots (39% to 35%) was observed in plants under conSD; plants under SD-LD were 10% to 9%. The second generation of shoots showed the highest flowering (74% conSD and 21% SD-LD), followed by the first (62% conSD and 18% SD-LD), and third (31% conSD and 0% SD-LD) generations. Non-flowering shoots of the first generation were aborted or dead. Shoots of the third were still vegetative, since they had few leaves to be induced. Fewer flowers occurred in clumps allowed to develop all their shoots. Intact plants from rhizomes with one shoot per generation flowered more than the partially defoliated ones under conSD.

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Brian K.W. Chang and Richard A. Criley

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David S. Inouye and Richard A. Criley

The time frames for shoot emergence (SE) to inflorescence emergence (IE) and harvest (H) were determined for three Alpinia purpurata cultivars irrigated at 0.33, 0.67, 1.0, and 1.67 times the pan factor evaporation rate of the preceding week. Leaf area per shoot, rate of increase in clump area, and yield and quality measurements were also were determined. Cultivar differences were more important than irrigation regimes for the SE–IE and SE–H time frames; however seasonal effects were important for both temporal and quantitative variables. As the amount of irrigation water was increased from pan factor 0.33 to 1.67, yields increased by ≈10 inflorescences per plant (over the 18 months of the experiment), and the proportion of high-quality (fancy) inflorescences harvested increased by 10%.

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Richard A. Criley and William S. Sakai

Seasonal flowering behavior of Heliconia wagneriana Petersen was found to be caused by short daylengths (SD) using artificial short days (8 to 9 hours) and long days as daylength extension or night break lighting with incandescent lamps. The natural time for flower initiation was estimated to be mid- to late October (11 hours 40 minutes to 11 hours 20 minutes) in Hawaii, and 120 to 150 days were required from the onset of inductive SD to inflorescence emergence. The results may be used to manipulate flower availability for flower markets.

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Richard A. Criley and Jeff S. Kuehny

Several reports suggest that late-planted rhizomes of Curcuma alismatifolia produce their inflorescences in less time than those that have been planted earlier in the forcing season. Two cultivars of this ginger species were removed from the ground in late February following a lengthy dormancy period in the field. About 6 weeks later, after air drying, weekly plantings were initiated through the end of June. Five rhizomes per cultivar were planted singly in 15-cm pots in ProMix BX medium. All plants were forced outdoors under full sun conditions and an overhead spray stake irrigation system that delivered 200 ppm each of nitrogen and potassium with each watering. Cultivar differences were apparent. Plant-to-sprout days for the DP and LP cultivars ranged from 20–51 and 21–57 days, respectively, with means of 3 8 ± 9.2 and 44 ± 11.9 days, respectively, over the 10-week planting cycle. Sprout-to-flower days showed much less difference with ranges of 61–75 and 58–72 days for DP and LP and means of 69 ± 4.3 and 66 ± 4.0 days, respectively. Plant to flower times differed largely because of the length of time required for the rhizomes to sprout rather than for the amount of time spent in inflorescence initiation and development. Plant heights at flowering and inflorescence counts were not different within cultivars over the 10-week planting period. Degree days and solar integrals will be presented for the 10 growing periods.

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Richard A. Criley and George W. Staples

A new name for an old plant is not necessarily welcome in the horticultural trades or in plant identification classes, but some name changes have been in existence long enough that textbooks and trade publications should have caught up with them. The objective of this poster is to call attention to some of these changes for horticultural plant identification courses. Traditional references such as Hortus Third (1976) and Exotica 8 (Graf, 1976) have been superseded by the second edition of The Plant Book (Mabberly, 1997) and The Index of Garden Plants (Griffiths, 1994), while some recent works (The Tropical Look, Riffle, 1998) have chosen to retain old names. The taxonomic research underlying a new book, Tropical Garden Flora (Staples and Herbst, in press), based on the second edition of In Gardens of Hawaii (Neal, 1965), has produced an abundance of name changes. This poster will illustrate and report genera and species name changes that have occurred for selected ornamentals in the Acanthaceae, Agavaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Arecaceae, Commelinaceae, and Moraceae families plus a few others.

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Eileen C. Herring and Richard A. Criley

The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation Web Site (http://pdcs.ctahr.hawaii.edu:591/hawnprop) is a collection of organized propagation information for selected Hawaiian indigenous and endemic plants. It was designed to provide easy access to this information for university extension personnel, researchers, students, conservationists, and nursery and landscape professionals. Journals and newsletters published in Hawaii provided the most relevant data for this Web site. The first prototype was a database-driven Web site that provided sophisticated search capability and dynamically generated Web pages for each plant record. Subsequent testing of the prototype identified a number of usability problems. These problems were corrected by redesigning the Web site using a hybrid databasestatic Web page approach. The database software search features are retained, but each database record is linked to a static Web page containing the propagation information for a specific plant.

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Mark Roh, Roger Lawson, Jong Suk Lee, Jeung Keun Suh, Richard A. Criley, and Pimchai Apavatjrut

Sixteen accessions of Curcuma germplasm and several selected accessions of Curcuma were evaluated for use as potted plants or as cut flowers. Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and C. thorelii Gagnep. `Chiang Mai Snow' met standards for cut flower and pot plant use, respectively. Furthermore, C. parviflora Will. `White Angel' proved to be a good selection for potted plant production. Optimum storage temperatures of rhizomes were studied in relation to greenhouse forcing and carbohydrate changes. It is recommended to store rhizomes at 25 to 30 °C after harvest for 2 to 3 months to break dormancy. Plants of C. parviflora `White Angel' flowered in 50 to 89 days and C. `CMU Pride' flowered in 104 days after potting, and were acceptable as potted plants. Plants of C. alismatifolia flowered 96 to 133 days after potting with floral stem length suitable for use as a cut flower. A high level of boron or manganese may cause the burn at the margin of the leaves (marginal leaf burn) observed on old leaves of `CMU Pride' at flowering. The level of ethanol-soluble fructose, glucose, and sucrose in elongated rhizomes with emerged short shoots of Curcuma was higher than the level in rhizomes and increased as storage temperatures increased. Accelerated leaf emergence may be associated with the increase in the glucose and fructose content. Based on the similar morphological characters between C. thorelli `Chiang Mai Snow' and C. parviflora `White Angel', identification of Curcuma accessions is required in future studies.

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Mathews L. Paret, Asoka S. de Silva, Richard A. Criley, and Anne M. Alvarez

Fourteen species of ginger belonging to Zingiberaceae and Costaceae were evaluated for susceptibility to the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) race 4 (ginger strains) by several methods of inoculation, including tests to simulate natural infection. Twelve of 14 species tested were highly susceptible to all strains of Rs race 4 upon stem inoculation, and susceptible plants wilted within 21 days. In contrast to previous reports that Rs strains from an invasive alien species, kahili ginger (Hedychium gardenarium), are nonpathogenic on ornamental gingers, the kahili ginger strain wilted both ornamental and edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) species within 21 days. Pour inoculation to the base of 11 plant species to simulate natural infection confirmed the ability of Rs to invade all the tested species without root wounds. Shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) was the most susceptible (wilted in 26 days) whereas pink ginger (Alpinia purpurata) and red ginger (A. purpurata) were the least susceptible and wilted in 71 and 76 days respectively. Pathogen survival in potting medium was evaluated by enumerating viable cells in effluent water from drenched pots with and without infected edible ginger after stem or rhizome inoculation. Ralstonia solanacearum survived in plant-free potting medium for 120 days and for 150 to 180 days in potting medium with infected edible ginger. The ability of Rs race 4 to infect many ginger species without wounding and to survive for long periods indicates that high risks will be incurred if the kahili ginger strain is inadvertently introduced from the forest reserves into ginger production areas.