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Theresa Bosma and John M. Dole

Various postharvest treatments were evaluated for effect on longevity and quality of cut Campanula medium L. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' stems. Stems stored at 2 °C either wet or dry had no difference in vase life or percent flowers opened; however, flowers stored dry had a slightly greater percentage of senesced flowers at termination. Increasing storage duration from 1 to 3 weeks decreased vase life. Stems pretreated for 4 hours with 38 °C floral solution (deionized water amended to pH 3.5 with citric acid and 200 mg·L-1 8-HQC) or a 1-MCP pulse followed by a 5% sucrose pulse solution produced the longest vase life (10.3 or 10.4 days, respectively). Flowers opening after treatments commenced were paler than those flowers already opened and a 24-hour pretreatment with 5% or 10% sucrose did not prevent this color reduction. Stems had an average vase life of only 3.3 days when placed in floral vase foam but lasted 10.0 days without foam. Optimum sucrose concentration was 1.0% to 2.0% for stems placed in 22 °C floral vase solution without foam and 4% for stems placed in foam. High (110 μmol·m-2·s-1) or low (10 μmol·m-2·s-1) light levels did not affect postharvest parameters, but the most recently opened flowers were paler under low light conditions than under high light conditions. Chemical names used: 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (8-HQC); 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).

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John M. Dole and Michael A. Schnelle

Oklahoma floriculture producers, ornamental-horticulture retailers, mass-market retailers, and cut-flower wholesalers were surveyed to compare and contrast the industry in terms of attitudes towards their products and problems. Overall, attitudes of all four segments of the industry were neutral to negative on potted flowering plants, but were positive to neutral on bedding and foliage plants. However, producers were slightly negative concerning the postharvest life of bedding plants. While cut-flower wholesalers had a positive attitude concerning cut flowers, ornamental-horticulture retailers and mass-marketers tended to be neutral to negative. In particular, retailers and mass-marketers believed that cut flowers were too expensive and too short-lived. Floral preservatives were used by 82% of ornamental-horticulture retailers, while only 19% of mass-market retailers used preservatives. All cut-flower wholesalers used preservatives. Capital availability and market demand were the factors most limiting expansion for producers and ornamental-horticulture retailers; whereas mass-market firms listed competition as their most limiting factor.

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Frank Blazich Jr. and John M. Dole

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Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole

The effects of production temperature and transplant stage on stem length and caliper of cut stems and postharvest treatments on vase life of ‘Esprit’ penstemon (Penstemon grandiflorus) were examined. Plugs transplanted with eight to nine sets of true leaves had a longer stem length (64.3 cm) at harvest than those transplanted with two to three sets (57.7 cm) or five to six sets (60.8 cm). Time to flowering from transplant shortened as production temperature increased and when transplants had a greater number of true leaves. The addition of 2% or 4% sucrose with 7 ppm isothiazolinone as a vase solution resulted in the longest vase life (9.4 days) of all treatments compared with the control (4.5 days). A holding solution increased vase life to 7.0 days for Floralife holding solution and 5.9 days for Chrysal holding solution from the 4.3 days control, although hydrating solutions and preservative brand had no effect. The use of floral foam or antiethylene agents, ethylene exposure, or sucrose pulses also had no effect on vase life. Extended cold storage lengths either wet or dry for 2 or 3 weeks caused vase life to decrease to 2.0 days when compared with 5.6 days for the unstored control and 7.6 days for 1 week storage. ‘Esprit’ penstemon may be suitable for greenhouse production and has acceptable potential as a locally grown specialty cut flower.

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Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole

Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Roth., Hyacinthus orientalis L. `Gypsy Queen', Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. `Music Hall', N. pseudonarcissus `Tahiti', Tulipa gesneriana L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. gesneriana `White Emperor' bulbs were given 0 or 6 weeks of preplant 5 °C cold treatment and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for 2 years after planting. Preplant 5 °C cold pretreatment reduced percentage of Tulipa `White Emperor' bulbs that flowered but did not affect the percentage of bulbs that flowered for the other species. Cold pretreatment also delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars except Hyacinthoides hispanica. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep. The 45-cm planting depth reduced bulb flowering percentage or eliminated plant emergence. Increasing planting depth increased days to anthesis for all cultivars in both years. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in year 2 for all cultivars except Hyacinthoides hispanica, but did not influence percentage of bulbs flowering for any cultivars. For all cultivars perennialization was low regardless of treatment as less than 30% of bulbs survived to the 2nd year.

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Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole

Narcissus L. `Music Hall', N. `Tahiti', Tulipa L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. `White Emperor' bulbs were precooled at 5 °C for 0 or 5 weeks and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep (from bulb base) into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for two consecutive years after planting. Precooling reduced the percentage of T. `White Emperor' that flowered but did not affect flowering percentage of the other cultivars. Precooling delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep and the 45-cm planting depth reduced flowering percentage. Increasing planting depth delayed anthesis for all cultivars. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in one or both years for all cultivars, but did not influence flowering percentage. Perennialization was low for all cultivars regardless of treatment. Cultivar differences in perennialization occurred; in year 2 up to 30% of N. `Tahiti' bulbs flowered vs. 32% for `Music Hall' and up to 30% of T. `White Emperor' bulbs flowered vs. only 22% of `Couleur Cardinal'.

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Paul B. Redman and John M. Dole

The postharvest attributes of six specialty cut flower species were studied. First year results indicate that Achillea filipendulina `Coronation Gold' had a vase-life of 10.7 days in deionized water (DI) and can be stored one week at 1.7°C and shipped for one day. Buddeleia davidii (Butterfly Bush) had a vase life of 3.8 days in DI water and tolerated two weeks of cold storage and two days of shipping. Celosia plumosa `Forest Fire' (Plume Celosia) had a vase-life of 5.9 days in DI water and tolerated 2 days of shipping. Cercis canadensis (Redbud) had a vase-life of 9 days in DI water and tolerated one day of shipping. Echinacea purpurea `Bright Star' (Purple Coneflower) had a vase-life of 4.6 days in DI water and tolerated 2 weeks of storage and five days of shipping. Helianthus maximilianii (Maximillian Sunflower) had a vase-life of 6.3 days in DI water and tolerated one week of storage. In addition, silver thiosulfate and 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate increased vase-life of Buddeleia davidii, Celosia plumosa, Echinacea purpurea, and Helianthus maximilianii.

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John M. Dole and Harold F. Wilkins

Easter lily bulbs (Lilium longiflorum `Nellie White') were given 6 weeks of cold, placed in the greenhouse and subsequently divided into groups based on emergence date after placement in the greenhouse: 0-6, 7-13, 14-20 and 21-27 days. At emergence bulbs received 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks of long days (LD). Late-emerging plants had fewer days to visible bud and anthesis from emergence than early-emerging plants; consequently, late-emerging plants flowered within 3-10 days of early emerging plants despite 14-21 days difference in emergence time. Late emerging plants were tallest and middle emerging plants had the highest leaf number. Increasing LD tended to decrease numbers of days from emergence to visible bud and anthesis and increase plant height. LD did not effect leaf or flower number. Interactions between LD and emergence date will be discussed. Experiment was repeated for three consecutive years.

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Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole

Campanula medium L. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' and Lupinus hartwegii Lindl. `Bright Gems' were grown in 8- or 16-h initial photoperiods, transplanted when 2-3, 5-6, or 8-9 true leaves developed, and placed under 8-, 12-, or 16-h final photoperiods. The lowest flowering percentage for `Champion Blue' (<1%) and `Champion Pink' (16%) resulted from plants grown in the 8-h photoperiod continuously. One hundred percent flowering occurred when Campanula were grown in the 16-h final photoperiod, indicating that `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' are long-day plants. Plants grown initially in the 8-h and finished in the 16-h photoperiod had the longest stems. Stem diameter was generally thickest for plants grown in the 8-h compared with the 16-h initial photoperiod. However, the 8-h initial photoperiod delayed anthesis compared with the 16-h initial photoperiod. `Champion Blue' and `Champion Pink' plants transplanted at the 2-3 leaf stage from the 16 hour initial to the 8-h final photoperiod had flowering percentages of 64% and 63%, respectively; however, when transplanted at the 8-9 leaf stage, plants were fully mature and 100% flowering occurred indicating that all plants were capable of flowering. In year 2, plants receiving high intensity discharge (HID) supplemental lighting during the 16-h initial photoperiod reached anthesis in 11 fewer days compared with plants not receiving HID supplemental lighting. High profits were obtained from Campanula grown in the 8-h initial photoperiod and transferred at 5-6 true leaves into the 16-h final photoperiod. Lupinus hartwegii plants had a high flowering percentage (96% to 100%) regardless of photoperiod or transplant stage. The 16-h final photoperiod decreased days to anthesis compared with the 8- or 12-h final photoperiod indicating that L. hartwegii is a facultative long-day plant. Increasing length of final photoperiod from 8- to 16-h increased stem length. Juvenility was not evident for Lupinus in this study. In year 2, Lupinus cut stems were generally longer and thicker when given HID supplemental lighting, especially when grown in the 8- or 12-h final photoperiod. Supplemental lighting also reduced days to anthesis. Highest profits were generally produced from Lupinus plants grown with supplemental HID lighting (during the initial photoperiod) until 8-9 true leaves had developed.

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John M. Dole and Michael A. Schnelle

Floricultural producers, cut flower wholesalers, mass market retailers and general retailers were surveyed to compare and contrast the industry in terms of attitudes and problems. Questions involved general business information, as well as specific crops. Overall, all four segments of the industry were neutral to negative on potted flowering plants, but were positive to neutral on bedding and foliage plants. However, producers were slightly negative concerning the postharvest life of bedding plants. While cut flower wholesalers had a positive attitude concerning cut flowers, retailers and mass marketers tended to be neutral to negative. In particular, retailers and mass marketers felt cut flowers were too expensive and too short lived. Floral preservatives were used by 81.6% of general retailers, while only 18.8% of mass market retailers used preservatives. All cut flower wholesalers used preservatives. Capital availability and market demand were the factors most limiting to expansion for producers and general retailers; mass market firms listed competition as their most limiting factor. Results from other questions will also be provided.