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John C. Beaulieu, Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, and Deborah L. Boykin

There are very few studies detailing the aroma, astringency, and flavor of rabbiteye blueberry [RAB (Vaccinium ashei)] fruit typically grown in the southeastern United States. The objectives were to investigate the rapid and qualitative solid-phase microextraction gas chromatographic–mass spectrometry volatile composition of several local RAB cultivars with an overall goal to build a database of possible flavor and aroma compounds. Volatile profiles were obtained in five Louisiana-grown RAB cultivars (Brightwell, Climax, Premier, Powder Blue, and Tifblue) assayed at four maturities. The method routinely captured 53 volatiles, including 12 aldehydes, six alcohols, 11 esters, four ketones, 17 terpenoids, one furan, and two aromatics. Of the 33 compounds considered important in blueberries, 17 were recovered in the RAB cultivars assessed. Herein, 10 compounds were recovered for the first time in blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) and five of those compounds were confirmed with standards [2-ethylfuran, (E)-2-pentenal, (Z)-dehydroxylinalool oxide, (E)-dehydroxylinalool oxide and 1,4-cineole]. In general, terpenoids and their subclass linalools were the most significant volatiles followed closely by esters, aldehydes, and then alcohols. Terpenoids and linalools displayed the greatest significant differences in ‘Powder Blue’ and ‘Premier’. Esters and aldehydes were the most significant compound classes based on cultivar effect per maturity in firm-ripe fruit. From the suite of 17 of the 33 important compounds in upright blueberry, 10 were recovered across the five cultivars at four maturities that displayed a high level of significance. These were linalool, methyl 3-methylbutanoate, 1,8-cineole, (E)-2-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, limonene, hexyl acetate, hexanal, and α-terpineol. These data will be useful to evaluate aroma volatiles in RAB and changes in processed and value-added byproducts.

Full access

Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, John W. Finley, Jack N. Losso, and John C. Beaulieu

Juice production is a multibillion dollar industry and an economical way to use fruit past seasonal harvests. To evaluate how production steps influence not-from-concentrate (NFC) blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In bench-top, southern highbush (SHB) blueberry (Vaccinium darrowii × Vaccinium corymbosum) and rabbiteye blueberry (RAB) (Vaccinium ashei) were pressed at varying temperatures. Press treatments included ambient temperature, frozen then thawed, and frozen then heated berries. In addition, two commercial pectinase enzymes were evaluated. Three batches were pressed and average juice recovery was calculated. The highest average free juice recovery (68.8% ± 1.1%) was attained by heating frozen berries and treating with enzyme. Comparing berry species pressed, SHB blueberries produced significantly more juice than RABs. There were no significant differences between enzymes used between berry species. Using this preliminary data, the optimum juice recovery method was then transferred to pilot scale processing. RABs were heated and treated with enzyme then pressed. Free juice recovery from the pilot scale was 74.0% ± 1.0%. Total juice recovery was calculated to be 87% ± 0.6%. With this information, further refinement of juice processes could increase juice production output for small-scale producers and expand local outlets for growers to market their crops as well as create new opportunities for growth in the fresh juice market segment.

Free access

Mikal E. Saltveit Jr., Mark Ritenour, Mary E. Mangrich, and John C. Beaulieu

Exogenous application of ethanol (EtOH) vapor to whole tomato fruit or excised pericarp discs inhibits ripening without affecting subsequent quality. Inhibitory EtOH levels are induced in whole tomatoes by a 72 h exposure to anaerobic atmospheres at 20C. In contrast to tomatoes, exposure to EtOH vapor (0 to 6 ml EtOH/kg FW, for 3 to 6 h at 20C) did not retard ripening (e.g., changes in external color, flesh firmness, and soluble solids) of avocado, banana, cucumber, melon, peach, or plum fruit. When the blocked replicates for nectarines were sorted by the firmness of the control fruit, higher levels of EtOH vapor appeared to delay softening of the firmer fruit. From 0 to 4 ml EtOH/kg FW was injected as 95% EtOH into the seed cavity of melon fruit through a surface sterilized area near the equator of the fruit with a plastic syringe fitted with a 7.5 cm long hypodermic needle. Injection of 1 to 4 ml EtOH/kg FW inhibited the softening of `Honey Dew' and muskmelons. Slight tissue necrosis near the site of injection was noted in a few fruit. Unlike the ripening inhibition of tomatoes which is relatively insensitive to the stage of maturity, the inhibition of melon ripening by EtOH appeared to be significantly affected by the maturity of the fruit.

Open access

Mohsen Hatami, Siamak Kalantari, Forouzandeh Soltani, and John C. Beaulieu

Dudaim melon (Cucumis melo Group Dudaim) is a unique edible melon for which few postharvest physiology studies have been conducted. To investigate the postharvest behavior of dudaim melon, two cultivars (Zangi-Abad and Kermanshah) were planted, tagged at anthesis, and harvested at two maturity stages: 21 and 28 d after anthesis (DAA). Harvested fruit were stored at 5 or 13 °C for up to 3 weeks and various quality parameters including color, firmness, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), weight loss, chilling injury (CI), ethylene production, protein content, glucose content, fructose content, sucrose content, and maltose content were assessed during storage. After 3 weeks of storage at 13 °C, early-harvested fruit (21 DAA) had relatively similar color values (L*, lightness; a*, green–red tones; b*, blue–yellow tones) and TA compared with late-harvested fruit (28 DAA); however, some quality traits, such as TSS, were not similar. Ethylene content decreased initially after harvest and then started to increase during storage at 13 °C. For most treatments, glucose and fructose contents decreased whereas sucrose and maltose contents increased with advancing maturity. Increased ethylene production, in concert with color development at 13 °C, similar to ripe fruit, and the changing balance of measured mono- and disaccharide sugars in harvested fruit likely indicates ‘Kermanshah’ is climacteric. Results for ‘Zangi-Abad’ were not as definitive. Dudaim melon fruit can be harvested at an optimum stage of maturity, similar to known climacteric melon fruit, and then allowed to ripen at proper storage temperatures before consumption. Based on the results of this study, we recommend that harvest at 21 DAA and storage at a nonchilling temperature such as 13 °C are the optimal stage and temperature for long storage purposes.

Free access

John C. Beaulieu, Maureen A. Tully, Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, and Javier M. Obando-Ulloa

A study was performed to evaluate the ability to rapidly produce fresh satsuma (Citrus reticulata) juice from local fruit with minimum processing inputs. Volatile flavor and aroma compounds, subjective assessments, and quality parameters were used to determine the changes that occur from different juice processing techniques, storage conditions, and enzymatic treatments. In freshly pressed Louisiana-grown satsuma juices, 44 compounds were recovered, of which 31 were positively identified. Based on volatile recovery and a consensus approach used in orange-fleshed Citrus species reported in the literature, 19 compounds were evaluated. Limonene was the dominant integrated peak in all unpeeled and peeled pressed juices (PPJ). Peel removal resulted in 98.4% of the total volatiles being lost and the distribution of the volatiles remaining was markedly different compared with whole-pressed fruit juice. Aside from a 63.4% increase in valencene after enzyme treatments, there seemed to be no marked volatile, subjective, or quality improvements from the enzymes used in this study. In general, peeled pressed fruit produced an acceptable, mildly citrus-flavored, balanced acidity, sweet, not-from-concentrate juice. Concentrates made from PPJ and reconstituted satsuma juices indicated clearly that most desirable aroma/flavor volatile compounds were stripped from juices during concentrating. Data reported suggest more attention would be required to maintain the top notes and subtle volatile balance during commercialization in rapidly produced fresh satsuma juices through use of industrial equipment (peeler) or by adding back essence or flavor packs for consistent consumer satisfaction.

Free access

John C. Beaulieu, Karen L. Bett, Elaine T. Champagne, Daphne A. Ingram, James A. Miller, and Ralph Scorza

Many consumers do not buy peaches due to the fuzzy skin and seed stone and because out-of-season peaches do not possess optimum tree-ripe flavor. The feasibility of using a non-browning freestone peach to deliver high-quality fresh-cut products was investigated. Changes in fresh-cut flavor, texture, and postharvest attributes of commercial-ripe (CR) vs. tree-ripe (TR) harvested and shipped `Bounty' peach was assessed. Fresh-cut CR wedges had an initial firmness of 20.9 N, whereas TR wedges had 11.2 N. On day 2, firmness decreased roughly 3% to 12% and 35% to 45% for CR and TR wedges held at 1 °C, respectively. By day 5, CR wedges hardened (24.5 N) whereas TR did not return to their initial firmness; increasing marginally through day 7. Sensory panel hardness for CR did not change through storage, but with TR wedges, hardness decreased through day 2 then increased until day 7. Little variation was noted in the initial soluble solids for CR vs. TR wedges (11.7, vs. 11.4 °Brix, respectively). After 7 days storage, °Brix decreased 7.5% to 12% in CR and 4.5% to 12% in TR wedges. Yellow flesh color (b*) decreased in all CR and TR treatments through storage. Flavor compounds in expressed juice were analyzed by solid phase microextraction with GC-MS. Several peaks were identified that may be associated with flavor-related changes that occurred during storage. For example, low molecular weight acetates and 6C compounds almost disappeared during storage, whereas short chain fatty acids, lactones, and palmitic acid increased markedly through storage. In TR, the “fruity” descriptor decreased throughout storage and “sweet aromatic” increased slightly (day 2) then decreased through day 7.