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J.R. Ballington', C.M. Mainland, S.D. Rooks, A.D. Draper, and G.J. Galletta

Free access

J.R. Ballington, C.M. Mainland, S.D. Duke, A.D. Draper, and G.J. Galletta

Open access

A. D. Draper, G. J. Galletta, and J. R. Ballington

Abstract

Fifty seedlings each of 8 tetraploid interspecific populations involving 6 Vaccinium species were examined for date of flowering, date of fruit ripening, fruit yield, color, firmness, and size. The 8 progenies contained from 25 to 75% highbush blueberry (V. corvmbosum L.) germplasm. There were significant differences among the 8 populations for all fruit characters and for the number of days from bloom to ripe fruit. Only 2 backcross progeny populations (75% high-bush blueberry) produced significant numbers of seedlings that met the selection criteria for 4 fruit characters.

Open access

Dennis J. Werner, James R. Ballington, and D. F. Ritchie

Abstract

‘Contender’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is being released to fulfill the need for a high-quality, consistent-cropping, yellow-fleshed freestone cultivar ripening between ‘Loring’ and ‘Elberta’.

Open access

Dennis J. Werner, James R. Ballington, and David F. Ritchie

Abstract

‘Carolina Belle’ peach is being released to fill the need for a firm, white-fleshed peach intended for local markets, and is proposed as an alternative to ‘Raritan Rose’.

Open access

E. P. Boyer, J. R. Ballington, and C. M. Mainland

Abstract

Ericoid mycorrhizae were measured on roots of wild and cultivated highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) from 7 locations in southeastern North Carolina over 4 sampling dates. An adequate clearing and staining procedure was developed specifically for observing endomycorrhizae in blueberry roots. Abundant mycorrhizae were found in wild blueberry plants, but few mycorrhizae were noted in cultivated plants. Phosphorus levels were lower in the wild than in the cultivated blueberry soils at most locations.

Open access

J.R. Ballington, W.E. Ballinger, and E.P. Maness

Abstract

HPLC analysis of seven blueberry species, V. ashei Read (2n = 6x = 72), V. constablaei Gray (2n = 6x = 72), V. corymbosum L. (2n = 2X = 24 and 2n = 4X = 48), V. elliotti Chap. (2n = 2X = 24), V. pallidum Ait. (2n = 2X 24 and 2n = 4X = 48), V. simulatum Small (2n = 4X = 48), and V. tenellum Ait. (2n = 2X = 24), identified the 3-monoarabinosides, 3-monogalactosides, and 3-monoglucosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, peonidin, and petunidin in each species. Differences in relative percent of individual anthocyanins in some instances were useful in distinguishing among both species and ploidy levels. Differences in percent aglycones were also useful in distinguishing among species. Evidence presented does not support grouping V. elliotti, V. simulatum, and V. constablaei into a single “highbush” species (i.e., V. corymbosum). Percent cyanidin-3-galactoside appeared useful in distinguishing ploidy levels in V. pallidum and between 4X V. pallidum and the “palloid” phase of V. constablaei (6X).

Open access

J.R. Ballington, Y.M. Isenberg, and A.D. Draper

Abstract

Hexaploid Vaccinium hybrid progenies, including F1, F1 intercross, F1 × F2, BC1, BC1 intercross, and BC1 × F2 crosses between V. ashei Reade and V. constablaei Gray, and an intercross between late-blooming V. ashei genotypes, established in the commercial blueberry production area in eastern North Carolina, were compared among themselves and with 2 highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) cultivars for flowering, ripening, primary mummy berry infection, crop, and fruit characteristics. There were significant differences among progenies for all traits, with sufficient variability for selection within most progenies. Differences reflected specific parent combinations rather than type of cross with the V. ashei–V. constablaei derivative progenies. The experiment included both V. ashei and V. ashei–V. constablaei derivative progenies that produced a high percentage of seedlings flowering with or later than highbush blueberries. Two percent of the V. ashei–V. constablaei derivative seedlings bloomed and ripened with the early ripening highbush cultivar ‘Croatan’. Crop ratings were variable in all progenies, and high sds for the cultivars indicated that a high percentage of the variation was environmental. Primary mummy berry infection significantly reduced the crop in several progenies but was not responsible for the poor overall crop performance of most. Mean fruit size of the V. ashei intercross was large enough for hand harvest, while all but the 2 smallest-fruited V. ashei- V. constablaei derivative progenies were large enough for mechanical harvesting. Fruit of most progenies were commercially acceptable for color, picking scar, firmness, and flavor.

Free access

B.J. Smith, C.L. Gupton, G.J. Galletta, J.L. Maas, J.M. Enns, J.R. Ballington Jr., R.J. Constantin, T.J. DiVittorio, and D. Himelrick

Open access

J. R. Ballington, W. E. Ballinger, W. H. Swallow, G. J. Galletta, and L. J. Kushman

Abstract

Eleven species in sections Cyanococcus and Polycodium of the genus Vaccinium were compared among themselves and with standard cultivars for soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble solids/acid ratio, weight/berry (g), stem scar diameter (pedicel diameter at the berry), scar depth, fruit removal force (picking ease), and firmness. Vaccinium ashei Reade populations collected in either Florida or Georgia showed consistent differences in acidity, fruit size, and firmness. No such pattern in geographical differences occurred with V. corymbosum L. Vaccinium stamineum L. (section Polycodium) was outstanding for high soluble solids, large fruit size, small scar diameter, and firmness. Vaccinium elliottii Chapm. seemed promising for mechanical harvesting and processing with high-acid fruit, a favorable soluble solids/acid balance, small scar diameter, and easily harvested fruit. Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. was noted for high soluble solids, small shallow scar, and picking ease; V. pallidum Ait. for high soluble solids and small shallow scar; V. amoenum Ait. for small shallow scar and picking ease; and tetraploid V. corymbosum for high acidity and favorable soluble solids/acid balance. Sufficient variability occurred among and within species for selection for improvement of most traits; however, several generations of backcrossing or recurrent selection would be required for producing genotypes with commercial fruit size.