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John L. Maas, Gene J. Galletta, and Gary D. Stoner

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John L. Maas, Shiow Y. Wang, and Gene J. Galletta

Ellagic acid in tissue extracts of green and red-ripe strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was detected and quantified by HPLC. Ellagic acid content of green fruit pulp ranged from 1.32 to 8.43 mg·g-1 of tissue dry weight (mean 3.36 mg·g-l) and in achenes of green fruit from 1.32 to 20.73 mg·g-1 (mean 7.24). Ellagic acid content of red fruit pulp at one location for 35 cultivars and selections ranged from 0.43 to 4.64 mg·g-1 of dry weight (mean 1.55) and from 0.43 to 3.47 mg·g-l (mean 1.45) for 15 clones at another location. Achenes from red-ripe fruit ranged from 1.37 to 21.65 mg·g-1 (mean 8.46) for 34 clones at one location and from 2.81 to 18.37 mg·g-1 (mean 8.93) for 15 clones at another location. Leaf ellagic acid content ranged from 8.08 to 32.30 mg·g-1 of dry weight (mean 14.71) for 13 clones examined. Large differences in ellagic acid content were found among cultivars, but tissue values were not consistent within cultivars. Values from one tissue type did not correlate consistently with values of the other tissues. Sufficient variation was found among cultivars to suggest that increased ellagic acid levels may be achieved in progeny from crosses with selected parental material.

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Shiow Y. Wang, Gene J. Galletta, Mary J. Camp, and Michael J. Kasperbauer

The influence of mulch types (black polyethylene, red polyethylene, and straw-vetch in raised bed hill culture) on the chemical composition of `Northeaster' and `Primetime' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) fruit and plant parts was evaluated. Ascorbic acid (AA), malic acid, citric acid, and ellagic acid levels were higher in `Primetime' than in `Northeaster' fruits, while `Northeaster' had a higher soluble solids content (SSC). Fruit grown on straw-vetch had lower SSC than did those grown on the polyethylene mulches. The AA content in the fruit of either cultivar was not affected by the mulch treatment. Fruit grown on the straw-vetch mulch had less red surface and flesh color but higher pigment intensity than fruit grown on the polyethylene mulches. Strawberry plants grown on straw-vetch mulch had the largest leaf area and the highest chlorophyll content, while plants grown on red polyethylene mulch had the smallest leaf area and lowest chlorophyll content. There were significant mulch × cultivar interactions in fruit titratable acid (TA) and AA levels, sugars, citric and ellagic acid contents, leaf area and chlorophyll levels, and soluble carbohydrate and starch contents in leaves, petioles, crowns, crown-roots, and roots. TA was highest in `Northeaster' fruit when grown on red polyethylene, whereas TA was highest in `Primetime' fruit when grown on straw-vetch. The highest fruit citric acid levels were found in straw-vetch mulched plots of `Northeaster', and in black polyethylene mulched plots of `Primetime'. Ellagic acid accumulation was highest in `Northeaster' fruit grown on black polyethylene, and in `Primetime' fruit grown on red polyethylene or straw-vetch mulches. Fruit glucose content was highest in `Northeaster', but lowest in `Primetime', when grown on the straw-vetch mulch. There was a general tendency for soluble carbohydrate and starch levels in plant tissues to be lowest when the plants were grown in red polyethylene mulch and highest when grown in black polyethylene mulch. `Primetime' contained higher total carbohydrate levels than did `Northeaster' in all tissues tested.

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Chad E. Finn, Chaim Kempler, Patrick P. Moore, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Robert R. Martin, and Gene J. Galletta

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Chad E. Finn, Bernadine C. Strik, Brian M. Yorgey, Theodore A. Mackey, Patrick P. Moore, Michael Dossett, Chaim Kempler, Robert R. Martin, Andrew R. Jamieson, and Gene J. Galletta

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Kim S. Lewers, Patricia R. Castro, John M. Enns, Stan C. Hokanson, Gene J. Galletta, David T. Handley, Andrew R. Jamieson, Michael J. Newell, Jayesh B. Samtani, Roy D. Flanagan, Barbara J. Smith, John C. Snyder, John G. Strang, Shawn R. Wright, and Courtney A. Weber