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Kimberly A. Williams and Ellen T. Paparozzi

A model for the creation of shared synchronous courses between universities has been developed based on our experiences during the development and delivery of an upper-level undergraduate/graduate course in Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Management offered by Kansas State Univ. and the Univ. of Nebraska–Lincoln. The course was conducted during the Spring 1999 semester using two-way compressed video so that instructors and students at both sites could see and hear each other in live time. Our model is set up as a flow-chart and currently has 10 steps that include areas such as “Identifying the Need,” “University Must-Do's,” “Distance Class Technology Requirements,” and “Advertising the Course.” Each step details procedures to follow, offers ideas and suggestions, and includes examples taken from our course. Also included is information about web site development and chat room use. The model is easily adapted for use with distance technologies similar to two-way compressed video such as Internet 2. An electronic version of the model can be accessed at

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Ellen T. Paparozzi and Robert R. Tripepi

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Ellen T. Paparozzi and Kimberly A. Williams

Chat rooms and their use in everyday life are becoming increasingly common, and the technology may be a useful tool to link students with experts of a given subject material and each other. In our shared course Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Management, we experimented with using a chat room to link students with experts in the field of plant nutrition. Our main goal was to enhance the learning experience of the students by providing them with access to national and international plant nutrition researchers. Web CT was used to create and conduct the chat rooms and a chat etiquette evolved to prevent crosstalk and control the flow of the discussions. Positive outcomes of the chat room use included exposure of students to the technology and beneficial interaction between students and experts. Negative aspects of chat room use included the time involved to coordinate the overall effort and train experts to use the technology; the slow pace of some chats; effective grading; and the superficial coverage of some topics. We are developing modifications for future sessions to allow subjects to be explored in more depth and to improve networking between students and experts.

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Ellen T. Paparozzi and David P. Lambe

Universities continue to cut budgets and reduce faculty. Such cuts occurred at the Univ. of Nebraska in 1986-87. To ensure that floral design courses would continue to be taught, despite reduction in teaching appointments, an industry-university teaching partnership was proposed. While the teaching relationship started out as a team approach, it successfully evolved into a-strong partnership that permitted growth on the part of the industry instructor, and movement into a strictly supervisory role for the faculty partner. Thus, the overall goal of keeping floral design courses as an integral part of the floriculture curriculum was met without using extensive amounts of faculty time.

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Mary E. Dale, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and James D. Carr

Cuttings of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch `Dark Red Annette Hegg' were grown hydroponically in minus S Hoagland's solution modified to supply 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg S/liter for 8 weeks. Nutrient solution changes; visual observations, sampling of tissue, and measurement of electrical conductivity and pH were done every 2 weeks. Deficiency symptoms appeared after 4 weeks of growth in treatments supplying 0 or 1 mg S/liter and occasionally in treatments supplying 2 mg S/liter. Symptoms included reddening of the petiole and main vein of new leaves followed by yellowing of these leaves. Leaf tissue S levels ranged from 700 to 3600 mg S/kg of plant. Deficient levels were identified as <2200 mg S/kg of plant. Suggested critical tissue levels of S would be 2300 to 3000 mg S/kg of plant leaf tissue.

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Walter W. Stroup, Stacy A. Adams, and Ellen T. Paparozzi

An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of various nitrogen sulfer combinations on the quality of poinsettias. After various physiological measurements were taken, commercial growers, retailers, and consumers were asked to evaluate the salability of the plants. In order to avoid evaluator fatigue, only a limited number of plants could be evaluated. This presented both experimental design and data analysis problems. In view of these constraints, and in order to obtain meaningful results, an unreplicated 7 x 8 factorial design was used. Data were analyzed using the method of half-normal plots in conjunction with a modification of the analysis of variance procedure. Rationale and alternative designs will be presented, as well as the step-by-step procedure for using this method as contrasted with the standard ANOVA technique.

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Willie Helpingstine, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and Walter W. Stroup

Hydrangeas are sold as a potted florist plant during the spring, usually around Mothers Day and Easter. They are considered “heavy feeders” because of their high requirement for nitrogen. Two experiments were conducted to determine if the addition of sulfur (S) would allow lower rates of nitrogen (N) to be applied without sacrificing plant color and quality. Hydrangea macrophylla `Blue Danube' were fertilized with four levels of N (50, 100, 200, and 450 ppm) in combination with six levels of S (0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 ppm) during a typical forcing program. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a complete factorial treatment design. Data collected included visual observations (using the Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart) on leaf color and uniformity of flower color as well as flower shape. Quantitative data included flower diameter, floret diameter, height, and N an S leaf concentrations. Soil pH was monitored throoughout the experiment and remained fairly constant (range of 5.0–6.0). Additional sulfur seemed to have no effect on leaf color at the higher levels of N. Lower concentrations of N produced more true blue flower color. Also, at lower N concentrations, higher S resulted in larger flowers with larger florets.

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Ellen T. Paparozzi, M. Elizabeth Conley, and Walter W. Stroup

Three cultivars of poinsettia, Freedom Red, Lilo and Red Sails, were grown in a peat:perlite:vermiculite mix according to a commercial production schedule. Twelve selected nitrogen–sulfur fertilizer combinations were applied (125, 150, 175 ppm N with either 12.5, 25, or 37.5 ppm S, 225 and 275 ppm N with either 37.5 or 75 ppm S). The experimental design was a split plot with cultivars as the whole plot and fertilizer levels as the split-plot factor. Mix samples were taken initially, at production week 7 and at the end of the experiment. Nitrate-nitrogen, sulfate-sulfur and total nitrogen were determined. Data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED. Visually all cultivars responded similarly to all treatments and were salable. Thus, levels of N as low as 125 or 150 with 12.5 ppm S produced quality plants. Sulfate-S tended to accumulate in the mix while nitrate-N and total N did not. Both nitrate-N and sulfate-S concentrations were affected by an interaction between the cultivar and the amount of S applied with `Freedom' better able to utilize available sulfur. `Lilo' removed more nitrate-N and total N from the mix than `Freedom' which removed more than `Red Sails', but only at specific levels of sulfur. There was no cultivar by nitrogen interaction for any variable measured.

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Melinda McVey McCluskey, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and Susan L. Cuppett

Previous research on leaf lettuce has shown that altering the N:S ratio has an effect on plant color and N and S content. It appears that nitrogen rates can be decreased if known rates of sulfur are applied. The next step was to determine what effect altering the N:S ratio in lettuce had on consumer acceptance of the product.

`Grand Rapids' lettuce was grown hydroponically at six rates of S (0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120 ppm) and four rates of N (30, 60, 120, 240 ppm). Sensory evaluation was performed on 20 of 24 treatments. The sensory panel was composed of 12 panelists who used the nonstructured hedonic scale to evaluate each lettuce treatment on appearance, color, texture, flavor, bitter flavor, and overall acceptability.

Results from the sensory evaluation indicate that differences in color, appearance, and bitter flavor were detected between treatments by the panel. Lettuce plants that received higher amounts of N in relation to S were considered less bitter in flavor and, over all, more acceptable than plants which received higher amounts of S in relation to N. These results indicate that altering the N:S ratio will affect consumer acceptance of leaf lettuce.

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Matthew H. Kramer, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and Walter W. Stroup

We examined all articles in volume 139 and the first issue of volume 140 of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science (JASHS) for statistical problems. Slightly fewer than half appeared to have problems. This is consistent with what has been found for other biological journals. Problems ranged from inappropriate analyses and statistical procedures to insufficient (or complete lack of) information on how the analyses were performed. A common problem arose from taking many measurements from the same plant, which leads to correlated test results, ignored when declaring significance at P = 0.05 for each test. In this case, experiment-wise error control is lacking. We believe that many of these problems could and should have been caught in the writing or review process; i.e., identifying them did not require an extensive statistics background. This suggests that authors and reviewers have not absorbed nor kept current with many of the statistical basics needed for understanding their own data, for conducting proper statistical analyses, and for communicating their results. For a variety of reasons, graduate training in statistics for horticulture majors appears inadequate; we suggest that researchers in this field actively seek out opportunities to improve and update their statistical knowledge throughout their careers and engage a statistician as a collaborator early when unfamiliar methods are needed to design or analyze a research study. In addition, the ASHS, which publishes three journals, should assist authors, reviewers, and editors by recognizing and supporting the need for continuing education in quantitative literacy.