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Open access

Lauren E. Deans, Irene E. Palmer, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. and H. serrata (Thunb.) Ser. are popular and commercially important landscape and floriculture crops. Although both species are typically diploid, induced polyploids often exhibit horticulturally valuable traits. Procedures for inducing polyploidy vary by species and often have low or inconsistent efficacy. In this study, oryzalin and nitrotyrosine were investigated as in vitro mitotic inhibitors for inducing polyploidy in H. macrophylla ‘Robert’ and H. serrata ‘MAK20’. First, shoot apices of ‘MAK20’ were treated with 15 μm oryzalin for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 days, and the ploidy of shoots was determined after 8 weeks. A regression analysis showed that the proportion of polyploids (tetraploid plus mixoploid shoots) increased with the exposure duration. During a follow-up experiment, ‘MAK20’ and ‘Robert’ were treated with oryzalin (0 or 15 μm) and nitrotyrosine (0, 25, 50, and 100 µm for ‘MAK20’ and 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µm for ‘Robert’) in a factorial treatment arrangement. Oryzalin, nitrotyrosine, and their interaction influenced polyploid frequency for ‘Robert’, whereby the combination of oryzalin (15 μm) and nitrotyrosine (50 μm) resulted in the highest polyploid induction of 50%. Oryzalin influenced polyploid frequency for ‘MAK20’ ( X ¯ = 30.4%), but not nitrotyrosine or the interaction between nitrotyrosine and oryzalin. Morphology and pollen germination of these autotetraploid ‘Robert’, ‘MAK20’, and previously developed autotetraploid H. macrophylla ‘David Ramsey’ plants were compared with their diploid counterparts 1 year after plants were moved ex vitro. Compared with diploids, tetraploid hydrangeas had larger leaves, thicker stems, lower leaf area/fresh weight ratios, and longer internodes. Although all tetraploids exhibited fewer inflorescences per plant, both H. macrophylla cultivars had larger inflorescence diameters and ‘David Ramsey’ had a greater number of showy florets (sterile florets with enlarged, decorative sepals) per inflorescence. Sepal colors were compared using International Commission on Illumination L*a*b* color space. Tetraploid ‘MAK20’ had lower L* values (darker sepals), and tetraploid ‘Robert’ and ‘MAK20’ both had higher a* values (redder sepals). Pollen germination rates were greatly reduced in all tetraploid lines, but they retained some viability. These results provide an effective protocol for in vitro polyploid induction of Hydrangea sp. and documented certain desirable traits associated with tetraploid phenotypes.

Open access

Davis D. Harmon, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney, Kedong Da, and Wusheng Liu

Methods of in vitro regeneration protocols were developed for three elite rose cultivars, Chewnicebell (Oso Easy Italian Ice®), Bucbi (Carefree Beauty™), and Cheweyesup (Ringo All-Star™). We evaluated the effects of different types and concentrations of auxins [dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], carbohydrates [sucrose, glucose, and fructose], and cytokinins [thidiazuron (TDZ) and 6-bezylaminopurine (BAP)] on callus induction and regeneration from leaf explants. The greatest amount of regenerative callus was obtained on media containing 10 µM 2,4-D and 30 g·L−1 sucrose for Italian Ice® (40%), 10 µM 2,4-D and 60 g·L−1 glucose for Carefree Beauty™ (24%), and 5 µM 2,4,5-T and 30 g·L−1 sucrose for Ringo All-Star™ (32%). The greatest regeneration occurred when callus was transferred to media consisting of 1/2 MS media supplemented with 2.9 µM GA3 and 5 µM TDZ for Italian Ice® and Ringo All-Star™, and with 2.9 µM GA3 and 20 µM TDZ for Carefree Beauty™. Plantlets regenerated from callus were cultured on maintenance media and successfully transferred ex vitro. This study highlights the genotype-specific responses among rose cultivars and provides the first reports of in vitro regeneration for Italian Ice® and Ringo All-Star™.